2014.7.03【英译中】Why Are All the Cartoon Mothers Dead? (2/8)

heyjude1943 (兔纸) 初涉译坛
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发表于:2014-07-03 13:56 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

You may notice that these thoughts about dead mothers share a notable feature: they don’t bother at all with the dead mother herself, only with the person, force, or thing that sweeps in and benefits from her death. Bettelheim focuses on the child’s internal sense of himself, Dever on subjectivity itself. Have we missed something here? Indeed. I present door No. 3, the newest beneficiary of the dead mother: the good father.

或许你会注意 到上述这些想法都有一个显着的特征:他们并不在乎“死去的母亲”本身,他们关心的只是能够介入她的死亡、并且从她的死亡获益的相关人物、势力或者事物。贝 特尔海姆的着力点在于儿童对自我内在的认知,德维尔则是注重主观性本身。还有什么漏掉的吗?有的。我代表第三类,母亲死亡的最新受益者:好父亲。


Take Finding Nemo (Disney/Pixar, 2003), the mother of all modern motherless movies. Before the title sequence, Nemo’s mother, Coral, is eaten by a barracuda, so Nemo’s father, Marlin, has to raise their kid alone. He starts out as an overprotective, humorless wreck, but in the course of the movie he faces down everything—whales, sharks, currents, surfer turtles, an amnesiac lady-fish, hungry seagulls—to save Nemo from the clutches of the evil stepmother-in-waiting Darla, a human monster-girl with hideous braces (vagina dentata, anyone?). Thus Marlin not only replaces the dead mother but becomes the dependable yet adventurous parent Nemo always wanted, one who can both hold him close and let him go. He is protector and playmate, comforter and buddy, mother and father.

就拿《海底总 动员》(迪斯尼/皮克斯,2003年)为例,这是所有现代丧母电影之开山之作。片头之前,尼莫的母亲卡洛儿就被梭子鱼吃掉了,所以尼莫的父亲马林,不得不 独自抚养他们的孩子。开始的时候他是一个过度保护、缺乏幽默感的行尸走肉,不过后来随着电影的发展他开始面对一切: 鲸鱼、鲨鱼、海流、冲浪的海龟、一个患失忆症的雌鱼、饥饿的海鸥——一切都是为了将尼莫从邪恶继母的魔掌中救出,继母形象就是一个带着可怕牙箍(有谁想到了阴齿?)的人类女孩子。如此这般,马林不仅替代了死去的母亲,而且成为了可靠又富于冒险精神的家长,正是尼莫梦寐以求的:一个可以包容他又能放手的家长。他既 是保护者又是玩伴,还是安慰者和好哥们儿,同时兼具父母双职。


In the parlance of Helen Gurley Brown, he has it all! He’s not only the perfect parent but a lovely catch, too. (Usually when a widowed father is shown onscreen mooning over his dead wife’s portrait or some other relic, it’s to establish not how wonderful she was but rather how wonderful he is.) To quote Emily Yoffe in The New York Times, writing about the perfection of the widowed father in Sleepless in Seattle, “He is charming, wry, sensitive, successful, handsome, a great father, and, most of all, he absolutely adores his wife. Oh, the perfect part? She’s dead.” Dad’s magic depends on Mom’s death. Boohoo, and then yay!

按照海伦·格 利·布朗的说法,他全知全能!他不仅是完美的父母,还是一个可爱的如意伴侣。 (通常丧偶的父亲在屏幕上的形象都是痴痴地望着死去妻子的肖像或者其他一些遗物,这种形象的建立并不是要表达她是如何的精彩,而是表示他是如何的伟 大。)引述纽约时报的艾米丽·约夫所写的《西雅图夜未眠》中丧偶父亲是多么完美:“他迷人、苦涩、敏感、成功、英俊、他是一个伟大的父亲,而且,最重要的是,他全心全意爱着他的妻子。哦知道更完美的部分吗?他老婆已经死了。”爸爸的魅力取决于妈妈的死亡。呜呜呜,然后,耶!


In a striking number of animated kids’ movies of the past couple of decades (coincidental with the resurgence of Disney and the rise of Pixar and DreamWorks), the dead mother is replaced not by an evil stepmother but by a good father. He may start out hypercritical (Chicken Little) or reluctant (Ice Age). He may be a tyrant (The Little Mermaid) or a ne’er-do-well (Despicable Me). He may be of the wrong species (Kung Fu Panda). He may even be the killer of the child’s mother (Brother Bear). No matter how bad he starts out, though, he always ends up good.

过去的几十年 间(正好与迪斯尼的复苏和皮克斯及梦工厂的崛起同一时期)拍摄的数量惊人的动画儿童电影中,死去的母亲是被一个好父亲所取代,而非邪恶的继母。他可能开始的 时候十分挑剔(《四眼天鸡》)或不情不愿(《冰河世纪》)。他可能还是个暴君(《小美人鱼》)或是个游手好闲的家伙(《卑鄙的我》)。他可能是连物种都不一样(《功夫熊猫》)。他甚 至可能是孩子母亲之死的始作俑者(《熊的传说》)。不管他开始有多坏,他的结局总是好的。


He doesn’t just do the job, he’s fabulous at it. In Brother Bear (Disney, 2003) when the orphaned Koda tries to engage the older Kenai as a father figure (not knowing Kenai killed his mom), Kenai (who also doesn’t know) refuses: “There is no ‘we,’ okay? I’m not taking you to any salmon run … Keep all that cuddly-bear stuff to a minimum.” In the end, though, Kenai turns out to be quite the father figure. And they both live happily ever after in a world without mothers.

他甚至不用刻 意做什么,他天生神秘光环附体。在《熊的传说》(迪斯尼,2003年)中,当成为孤儿的可达试图想把科奈当做父亲一般的存在(他不知道科奈害死了自己的母 亲),科奈(他也不知道)拒绝了:“你归你,我归我,好吗?我可不会带你去抓鲑鱼的...收起你的天真萌样子好吧。”不过到了最后,科奈还是充当起了一个 父亲的角色。并且他们从此过上幸福的生活——在一个没有母亲的世界里。


So desperate are these kids’ movies to get rid of the mother that occasionally they wind up in some pretty weird waters. Near the beginning of Ice Age, (Blue Sky/20th Century Fox, 2002), the human mother jumps into a waterfall to save herself and her infant, drags herself to shore, and holds on long enough to hand her child to a woolly mammoth. To quote an online review by C. L. Hanson, “She has the strength to push her baby up onto a rock and look sadly into the eyes of the mammoth, imploring him to steady her baby with his trunk,” but—hold on—she doesn’t have the strength to save herself? And by the way, if Manny the woolly mammoth is such a stand-up guy, why doesn’t he “put his trunk around both of them and save them both” rather than watching her float downriver with a weary sigh? Because, as the reviewer noted, “the only purpose of her life was to set up their buddy adventure.” Her work is done. Time to dispose of the body.

让人绝望的是 这些儿童电影需要摆脱母亲的时候就会让她们死在某些奇怪的水域中。《冰河世纪》(蓝天工作室/二十世纪福克斯,2002年)的开始部分,人类母亲为了救护 自己和孩子跳入瀑布,挣扎到岸边,一直坚持到猛犸象到来,才把孩子交给了它。引述C.L.汉森的一篇网评,“她有力气把婴儿推到岩石上,悲哀的看着猛犸的 眼睛,恳求他用象牙接住她的孩子,但——等等——难道她没有力量救自己吗?顺便说,如果猛犸象曼尼就是这么见义勇为的家伙,那他为什么不把“他的象牙环住 他们两人,两个都救呢”这不是比眼睁睁的看着她带着虚弱的叹息随水飘走更好吗?”因为,正如影评所指出的:“她的生命唯一目的就是为了让他们几个好友继续 冒险。”她的任务已经完成了,于是就剩处理尸体的问题了。


Many movies don’t even bother with the mother; her death is simply assumed from the outset. In Despicable Me (Universal/Illumination, 2010), three orphaned girls, Margo, Edith, and Agnes, are adopted from an orphanage by Gru, a supervillain. Gru adopts them not because he wants children but because he plans to use them in his evil plot. He wants to shrink the moon and steal it. (Hey, wait, isn’t the moon a symbol of female fertility?) But by the end of the movie, Gru discovers that his girls are more dear to him than the moon itself. And, as if this delicious father-cake needed some sticky icing, Gru gets to hear his own hypercritical mother—remember, it was her negativity that turned him evil in the first place!—admit that Gru’s a better parent than she ever was. The supervillain becomes a superfather, redeemer of all bad mothers.

许多电影甚至 不劳费心母亲这一块儿。她的死亡只是从一开始就已经假设好了的。在《卑鄙的我》(环球/光线影业,2010),三个女孩子就是孤儿出现的,马戈,伊迪丝,和 艾格尼丝,被超级大坏蛋格鲁从孤儿院领养。格鲁领养她们不是因为他想要孩子,而是因为他计划利用她们实现他的罪恶阴谋。他想收缩月亮并窃取月球。(嘿, 等等,月亮难道不是女性生育能力的象征?)但到了影片的结尾,格鲁发现这些女孩子对他而言比月亮更珍贵。如果这甜美的父亲蛋糕上需要一些糖霜的话,格鲁总 是要听他那吹毛求疵的老妈讲话——记住,她是格鲁邪恶性格的罪魁祸首!——以此突出格鲁比起他的妈妈,是个更称职的家长。超级坏蛋成了超级 奶爸,摇身一变就是天下坏妈妈的救世主。


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