20140705【英译中】【独立博客】思考的方法:举个例子 (23句)

冰绪 (冰绪) 路人甲
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发表于:2014-07-05 13:27 [只看楼主] [划词开启]
Tools of thought, #2: Give an example (or several)

思考的方法No.2 :举个例子(或几个)


来自 Michael 的博客






The second tool of thought that I want to share with you is simple: Give an example. If you're arguing that there are such-and-such things, point out at least one of them. If you're saying that something can be done in such-and-such a way, walk us through an actual example in detail.

我想与你分享的第二种思考的方法很简单:举个例子。如果你争辩说存在诸多是由,那么请至少指出其中的一项。如果你说通过诸多途径能做到什么,那么请详细地给我们讲一个实际的例子实例



Giving an example helps you think clearly in several ways:

举例能在以下几个方面帮助你清醒清晰地思考:



· It ensures that you are talking about something real, not just arranging words. Or, worse, rearranging someone else's words without having found an actual point of disagreement.

· 它能确保你正在谈论确实的事务确实正在谈论一件事,而非单单在排列字句。或者,更糟糕的是,更糟一点,只是在没有找到实际分歧点的情况下重新排列别人的话没有异议时重组别人的话



· It immediately raises useful questions: "Are there other examples? Are they very different from this one? How would we know whether something is an example of this or not?"

· 它能使我们立刻提出一些有用的问题:“还有其他例子吗?它们与这一个截然不同吗?我们如何能知道一件事是否能作一个例子?”




· You might even find out that there are no examples. I've heard of this happening in a mathematics thesis defense — the student had proved a set of theorems about a particular set of functions, without actually identifying one of the functions, and the examiners stumbled upon a proof that there aren't any. The same thing happens in the real world. Don't just philosophize about the snakes of Ireland. Go find one.

· 你甚至可能会发现根本找不到没有例子。我听说在一次数学论文答辩中发生过这种情况——一个学生没有给出任何一个具体的函数就证明出了一组特定函数集的定理,后来考官很偶然地证明了,事实上并不存在任何函数符合这个定理偶然发现任何函数都不符合这个定理。现实世界中也会出现同样的情况同样如此。不要仅仅从哲学方面去思辨爱尔兰的蛇,去找一只。



Let me practice what I preach by giving examples of the need for examples.

让我来列举一些需要举例的例子,以实践上述所言。



In an undergraduate philosophy class, I once heard a fellow student opine, "I think we should take emotions into account, not just logic." Not sure what this person meant by "logic," and suspecting it wasn't the same thing I meant by the same word, I had the presence of mind to ask for an example. I'm not sure we ever got one — the discussion took off in a different direction — but the point is, an example would have been very instructive and would have told us things that an abstract statement of the problem could not.

在一次本科哲学课上,我曾听到一位同学发表意见说,“我认为我们应该将情感也考虑进去,而不仅仅是逻辑。”我并不确认这个人口中的“逻辑”是什么含义,并且我猜测它与我理解的“逻辑”一词并不相同,于是我脑中开始有了请他举例的想法。我不确定我们是否得出过一个例子——讨论向着其他方向发展——但重点在于,一个例子将会非常具有启发性,并能向我们揭示一个抽象的陈述所不能告诉我们的东西并告诉我们那些抽象理论无法解释的东西

(以上感谢 @薄荷家的喵 的细心修改>/////<) 



Another example: Responding to Tools of Thought #1, a correspondent says that more things need to be "viewed in shades of gray" than I indicated. My response is that this, by itself, is not clear enough to debate, but some examples would shed a lot of light on it. 

另一个例子:在《思考的方法No.1》中有人回复说,相比我指出的观点而言,更多的事物需要“以灰色区域来审视”。我的回应是这样的,这句话本身并没有足够清晰地论证其观点,但如能给出一些事例,它会有力的多。



Indeed, thinking of examples, we realize immediately that some questions have definite "yes" and "no" answers ("Were you born in the United States?"), and others pertain to gradients ("Are you tall?"). Still others might have numerous discrete possibilities rather than just two ("What country are you a citizen of?"). 

的确,通过思考一些实例,我们很快能意识到有些问题有明确的“对”与“错”(例如“你是否出生在美国?”),而一些其他的问题则涉及到渐变(例如“你高吗?”)。当然还有一些问题可能会有众多分立的可能性,而非只有两个(例如“你是哪国的公民?”)。

译注:这里的渐变与下段的渐变都指无法明确分类的情况。但不知是否有更通用的说法来指这种语境下的“渐变”一词。



If you start looking for shades of gray in people's nationality, you will find a lot of interesting cases you hadn't thought of before (dual citizenship, stateless individuals, etc.), but, I contend, you will not find shades of gray. On the other hand, if you try to classify everyone as either "short" or "tall" with no smooth gradient from one to the other, you'll fail to do justice to the facts. (And the same goes for classifying people by race.) Are there other examples that behave differently from any of these? That's for you to explore.
如果你开始在人们的国籍中寻找灰色区域,你会发现很多未曾想过的有趣事例(例如双国籍,无国籍者等等)。但我能断言你不会发现灰色区域。另一方面,如果你想在撇除平滑渐变的情况下把所有人挨个分为“矮的”和“高的”,你会在事实的判断上有失公正。(以种族将人分类就是这样的情况。)还有与以上情况都不相同的事例吗?这交给你来探索。



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最后编辑于:2014-07-10 14:54
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