2014.07.27【中译英】人类的行为仿生学(上)

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发表于:2014-07-27 22:07 [只看楼主] [划词开启]
人类的行为仿生学

Bionics of human behavior


迄今为止,人类几乎所有的行为,甚至包括那些具有高级思维的,相当文明化了的行为,都能在动物世界中找到明显的痕迹。

【Up to now,】 almost all the traces of behaviors in human beings, including the high intelligentadvanced thinking and civilized behavior, can be found in the wild life apparentlyeasily .


比如人类的性行为虽然花样繁多,但若仔细分析起来,却也并没有超出动物世界所拥有的模式。

If the mold【pattern of sexual behavior is analyzed carefully for instance, we can find that it is still in the limit of wild life though has vary types.


从远古的母系社会和父系社会,直到后来的一夫多妻、一妻多夫和一夫一妻制,动物世界都早已有之。

From the ancient matriarchal and patriarchal society to the later polygyny, polyandry and monogamy, all of them have their existences in the wild lifelong ago.




(一根水草也可以成为加拿大北极鹅求爱的信物)
(A waterweed can also become a pledge of love for canadian barnacle)


例如,生活在陆地上的狼群,生活在海里的海象和鲸鱼,都是明显的父系社会,并且都是一夫多妻制。而北极狐狸则有点像是母系社会,且是一妻多夫。

The wolves on the land and walrus,whales in the sea for example,they are all living in patriarchal society and polygyny apparently. While the arctic foxes are liable to be living in matriarchal society and polyandry.


麝牛的情况则稍为复杂一些,虽然在前面领路的总是一头雄牛,但据仔细观察发现,牛群在跋涉苔原及牧地时的实际领袖通常是一头怀了胎的老雌牛。

It is more complicated when talk about Ovibos moschatus. Although it always seems to be a male in the front of the flock, we can find that the one who lead the flock trek across the tundra is actually an old pregnant female by carefully observation.


既麝牛仍是一种母系氏族。除此之外,麝牛还有一奇怪现象:许多雄牛分别组成小组,且每组都有自己的领袖。但个别不受欢迎的雄牛,没有一个小组肯接受它,只好孤零零地在草原上乱逛。这与爱斯基摩人惩罚那些不受欢迎的人的办法差不多。

That is to say, Ovibos moschatus still live in a kind of matriarchal society.What’s more, there is also a strange phenomenon--males stay together to form groups respectively and all the groups have their own leader. If a male is undesirable, it can only keep wandering on the prairie alone for no group receipting it. It is alike to the way of Eskimo punishment to the unwelcome to some extent.


若到鸟类的世界去看看,就更加有趣了,因为北极的夏天极为短暂,所以它们为求偶必须使出全身的解数。

It will be more interesting referring to the birds that they must try all ways possible for courtship as the arctic summer is extremely short.


长期研究的结果表明,鸟类以一夫一妻制的情况为最多,这与人类社会极为相似。

It is showed that the monogamy is the most normal mold for birds, which is resemble with human society. 



(北极海燕正在用一条鱼向对方求爱) 

(The arctic petrel is displaying courtship by using a fish)


据套环所得研究资料表明,有些涉鸟和鸣鸟往往能结成永久性的夫妻,连续许多年一直生活在一起。天鹅就是一个很好的例子。

As the research information that obtaining from the marked-ring examples is showed, some kinds of wading birds and warbler can form permanent couples of many years living together. For example, the swan is the typical one.


但由于北极极其严酷的自然环境,有些鸟类,特别是一些体形比较小的鸟类,则必须采取一些特别的措施繁衍后代,以便保持自己的数量。

But due to the cruel environment in Arctic, some kinds of birds,especially the small size, have to take special measures to reproduce in order to keep their species surviving.


例如沙鸥,交配后母鸟同时生下两窝蛋,雌雄各一窝,夫妻平等,各负其责。

Like the Sandpipers, the female give birth to two broods of eggs after mating and give one of the brood to the male so that they can be responsible for the eggs respectively.


再有就是红胫的法拉洛普鸟,其两性在繁衍后代中的角色于一般鸟不同,雌性花枝招展,体态丰满,春季一到则千方百计勾引雄性的注意,一旦成交,则很快产下四个蛋来交由丈夫孵化和喂养,再如法炮制,由第二任丈夫去孵化和照料第二窝幼仔,她却去饱餐休养,以便再次南迁。

The red shank Ferrari rop birds can also be an good example. Their characters in reproduction are different from most birds. The females has beautiful and charming appearances which are used to charm the males when spring comes. After mating, they give birth to four eggs to the male for hatching and feeding while they themselves leave for finding another male and do the same as the former. The female will go to have a feast and rest to make preparation for another migration to the south.


还有一种灰色的大雁,有着更加坚贞的婚姻观,不仅严格地奉行一夫一妻制,且即使丧偶,也决不再娶,宁愿终生独居,忠贞不二。
There’s a kind of grey wild goose as well. They have a more faithful marital view that not only they pursue the monogamy strictly, but also live the rest of life alone once lose the spouse. 
最后编辑于:2014-08-04 20:47
分类: 英语
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