20140729【英译中】少食多动 后果严重(903字)

汪德均 (老顽童) 译坛新宠
63 7 0
发表于:2014-07-29 10:25 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

What Happens if You Eat Too Little & Work Out?

   少食多动    后果严重

A sound diet and exercise program is part of any healthy weight-loss plan. Unfortunately, in the rush to attain instant results, many people sacrifice their health by reducing calories and increasing exercise too much. As tempting as crash diets and overtraining may be, they will just put your body at a greater disadvantage in the long run. To reach your fitness and health goals, it's important to make sure you eat enough to fuel your workouts. Talk with your doctor before beginning a new diet or exercise program, especially if you are significantly overweight or have health problems.

周全的膳食与锻炼方案,是任何减肥计划都不可缺少的。然而不幸的是,为了快速见效,许多人减少热量摄入而大幅增加锻炼强度,结果反而牺牲了健康。尽管通过大量节食和过度锻炼而迅速减肥的方法很诱人,但从长远来看,这会使得身体状况更加糟糕。为了达到既健身又健康的目标,确保摄入足够的热量以便为锻炼提供能量至关重要。实行节食或锻炼方案以前,请务必征求医生的意见,尤其是处于体重严重超标或患有疾病的情况。

Metabolic Effects

The metabolic effects of not eating enough for your workouts can be disastrous. When you place your body in an extreme calorie deficit, a survival mechanism kicks in that slows down your metabolism. Your body begins to conserve energy and burn calories at a much slower rate because it thinks it's starving. This reduction in metabolism can make it extremely difficult to lose fat. It can also make your energy levels plummet, causing the intensity of your workouts to suffer.

影响新陈代谢

进食不足而锻炼加强对于新陈代谢的影响可能是灾难性的。身体摄入的热量不足时,新陈代谢就会降低,这是因为人体启动了生存机制;身体觉得饥饿,就会大大降低消耗热量的速度,从而开始保存能量。新陈代谢的降低使得减掉脂肪极端困难,同时也急剧降低人的体力,导致高强度的锻炼无法承受。

Nutritional Deficiencies

Your body has complex nutritional needs that are met with a balanced diet of carbohydrates, fats and proteins from whole food sources. An insufficient diet can cause deficiencies in the vitamins and minerals your body needs for healthy cellular function. Inadequate consumption of macronutrients can be particularly damaging when you're working out. For example, if you're not eating enough protein, heavy training can cause your body to break down your muscle tissue for energy. Inadequate carbs can poorly impact brain function and reduce the glycogen your body needs to perform activities. Very low carbohydrates combined with exercise can also result in potentially dangerous hypoglycemia.

导致营养缺乏

人体需要的营养极其复杂,要满足这种需要,必须平衡饮食,从整个食物来源中获得碳水化合物、脂肪和蛋白质。进食不足可能导致维生素和矿物质的缺乏,而维生素与矿物质是维持健康的细胞功能所必需的。锻炼的时候,营养消耗不足尤其有害健康。例如,蛋白质摄入不足时,繁重的体能训练会导致肌肉组织因缺乏能量而受损。碳水化合物摄入不足会对大脑功能产生不利的影响,减少人体进行活动所必须的糖原。锻炼时,碳水化合物摄入不足也会带来血糖过低的潜在危险。

 

Psychological Impact

In addition to the physical effects, an inadequate diet coupled with intense exercise can take a psychological toll. Most people who restrict calories severely do so for weight loss. When you do this, in addition to exercise, you can begin to feel ravenously hungry and end up binging. This is where so many people trip up with dieting -- not only do they replace all the calories they burn with exercise, but they usually consume excess calories when their metabolism is in a reduced state. This can ultimately result in weight gain. The starvation and binge cycle can take an emotional toll that results in feelings of failure and depression.

影响心理健康

除了生理上的影响,进食不足而锻炼加强还会产生心理上的损害。在那些为了减轻体重而严格限制热量摄入的人群中,大多数人就是如此。吃得少而去锻炼,就会觉得极其饥饿,最后以暴食而告终。这就是许多人的节食之旅结束的原因——他们不仅补充了锻炼时消耗的所有热量,而且还在新陈代谢较低时消化了过多的热量。这就有可能导致体重增加。饥饿-暴食形成的恶性循环会造成精神损害,令人感到失败与沮丧。

 

Minimum Calorie Requirements

Your daily calorie requirements will vary depending on how much you weigh now, your gender and your overall fitness level. In general, daily calorie needs for adult women range from 1,600 to 2,400 calories, and 2,000 to 3,000 calories for adult men, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010. To lose weight, create a safe deficit by reducing daily calorie intake by about 500 calories, the guidelines recommend. A healthy weight loss is no more than 2 pounds per week.

人体所需最低热量

人体每日的热量需求因人而异,取决于体重、性别与总体上的健康状况。根据美国农业部于2010年发布的《美国人膳食指南》,一般而言,成年女性每日所需热量为1600——2400卡路里,成年男性为2000——3000卡路里。该指南还建议,为了减轻体重,需创立安全的节食标准,每日摄入热量只能减少500卡路里。每周减轻的体重不超过两磅才是健康的。

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最后编辑于:2014-08-02 14:19
分类: 英语
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