20140801【英译中】《如何正确说写英语》第一章(4)13句

冰绪 (冰绪) 路人甲
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发表于:2014-08-01 04:07 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

Nouns are varied by Person, Number, Gender, and Case. 

名词又有各种各样的人称、数、性以及格。


  人  称  

Person is that relation existing between the speaker, those addressed and the subject under consideration, whether by discourse or correspondence. 

人称是指存在于说话人、听众、谈话内容之间的关系。



The Persons are First, Second and Third and they represent respectively the speaker, the person addressed and the person or thing mentioned or under consideration.

人称包括第一人称,第二人称,第三人称,它们分别对应说话人、听众以及谈话提及的人或事物。


  数  

Number is the distinction of one from more than one. 

名词的指一个与多个的区别。



There are two numbers, singular and plural; the singular denotes one, the plural two or more. The plural is generally formed from the singular by the addition of s or es.

英语中名词的数有两种,单数以及复数,1个成为单数,2个或2个以上成为复数。英语中的复数通常由名词的单数加上“s”或“es”后缀来构成。



  性  

Gender has the same relation to nouns that sex has to individuals, but while there are only two sexes, there are four genders, viz., masculine, feminine, neuter and common. 

名词的就如同人的性别一样,只是人有两种性别,而名词有四种性,它们是阳性、阴性、中性以及通性*。

*译注:据说瑞典语中就只有通性与中性。



The masculine gender denotes all those of the male kind, the feminine gender all those of the female kind, the neuter gender denotes inanimate things or whatever is without life, and common gender is applied to animate beings, the sex of which for the time being is indeterminable, such as fish, mouse, bird, etc.

阳性表示所有雄性的,阴性表示所有雌性的,中性表示一切无生命体,通性表示一切当时无法确定性别的有生命体,如鱼、老鼠、鸟等等。



Sometimes things which are without life as we conceive it and which, properly speaking, belong to the neuter gender, are, by a figure of speech called Personification, changed into either the masculine or feminine gender, as, for instance, we say of the sun, He is rising; of the moon, She is setting.

?????????求助??????!!!!!


  格  

Case is the relation one noun bears to another or to a verb or to a preposition. There are three cases, the Nominative, the Possessive and the Objective. 

名词的指一个名词与另一个名词、动词或介词之间的关系。英语中有三种格,主格、所有格以及宾格。



The nominative is the subject of which we are speaking or the agent which directs the action of the verb; the possessive case denotes possession, while the objective indicates the person or thing which is affected by the action of the verb.

主格是我们谈论的主题或是动作的直接施事者;所有格表示拥有某物;宾格指受动作影响的人或事物。

to be continue...





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最后编辑于:2014-08-01 05:36
分类: 英语
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