2014.08.04【英译中】【GZB】Hacking our senses to boost learning power(1)(598)

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发表于:2014-08-04 23:48 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

Some schools are pumping music, noises and fragrances into the classroom to see if it improves exam results – could it work?

What did your school smell like? Was it noisy or peaceful?

一些学校将音乐噪音和香气大量地引入教室中,为了看看这是否提高了考试成果,但这有用吗?你的学校闻上去是什么味道呢?是让人心烦的还是平静的?


It might not seem important, but a growing body of research suggests that smells and sounds can have an impact on learning, performance and creativity. Indeed, some head teachers have recently taken to broadcasting noises and pumping whiffs into their schools to see whether it can boost grades. Is there anything in it? And if so, what are the implications for the way we all work and study?

这看上去也许没有那么重要,但是越来越多的研究表明气味与声音会对学习,表现和创造力产生影响。实际上一些校长最近在他们的学校中传播噪音和注入气味(或者臭味?),为了看看这是否可以提高成绩。这里还有什么元素吗?那么如果是这样,那么这对我们工作和学习有什么启示。

 

There is certainly some well-established research to suggest that some noises can have a detrimental effect on learning. Numerous studies over the past 15 years have found that children attending schools under the flight paths of large airports lag behind in their exam results.

显然,一些成熟的研究表明一些噪音对学习有负面影响。过去15年大量的研究发在飞机场下的学校上学的孩子会在他们的测验成绩上有所落后。


But general noise seems to have an effect too. Bridget Shield, a professor of acoustics at London South Bank University, and Julie Dockrell, now at the Institute of Education, have been conducting studies and advising politicians on the effects of all sorts of noises, such as traffic and sirens, as well as noise generated by the children themselves. When they recreated those particular sounds in an experimental setting whilst children completed various cognitive tasks, they found a significant negative effect on exam scores. “Everything points to a detrimental impact of the noise on children’s performance, in numeracy, in literacy, and in spelling,” says Shield. The noise seemed to have an especially detrimental effect on children with special needs. `               

但是常规噪音也有影响。一个在伦敦南方银行大学的声学教授布丽奇特·雪斗和现在在英国教育研究所的朱莉·多可瑞尔正在进行研究和鼓励政治家在各种噪音之下,如交通和汽笛,和小孩子自己发出的噪音。当在试验设定下,他们重新发出这些特别的声音时,同时孩子们完成了各种感知的任务, 他们发现了这对他们的考试成绩有着很坏的影响。雪斗说:“每一样都指出这些噪音对学生的表现有很坏的影响,在数学上,在文学上和在拼写上面”。噪音似乎对孩子在特殊需求上尤其存在的负面影响。

Shield says the sound of “babble” – the chatter of other children, is particularly distracting in the classroom. Architects that fashion open-plan classrooms in schools would do well to take this on board. “People are very distracted by speech – particularly if it’s understandable, but you’re not involved in it.” This phenomenon is also known as the irrelevant speech effect, she says, adding that “it’s a very common finding in open-plan offices as well.”

雪斗说含糊不清的声音——其他孩子的喋喋不休,在课堂中是最容易分神的。塑造学校开放教室的建筑师将会次很好地执行。她说,人们非常容易被演讲分心,特是如果这是我了解的,但是你们没有参与其中的。这种现象是有名的无关语言效应,她又添加道:同样在开放办公中也找到了相同的发现。


Whether background sounds are beneficial or not seems to depend on what kind of noise it is – and the volume. In a series of studies published last year, Ravi Mehta from the College of Business at Illinois and colleagues tested people’s creativity while exposed to a soundtrack made up of background noises – such as coffee-shop chatter and construction-site drilling – at different volumes. They found that people were more creative when the background noises were played at a medium level than when volume was low. Loud background noise, however, damaged their creativity.

背景声音是否有益似乎取决于这是哪一种类型的声音和他的声量。在去年发表的一系列研究中,来自伊利诺斯商学院的梅塔和他的同时测试了暴露在由背景噪音中组成的声带中测试了人们的创造力,比如在不同声量下咖啡馆的嘈杂聊天声和施工工地打钻。他们发现人们在背景噪音是一个中等的水平而不是偏低的声量时人们是最有创造力的。然而,太响的背景声会损坏人们创造力。


This makes sense for a couple of reasons, says psychologist Dr Nick Perham, at Cardiff Metropolitan University in the UK, who studies the effect of sounds on learning but was not involved in the study.  Firstly, he says, sounds that are most distracting tend to be very variable.  A chum in the background suggests a steady-state sound with not much acoustical variation. “So there’s not much there to capture your attention – nothing distracting the subjects,” he says. At the same time, the background noise might cause the subjects to be in a slightly heightened state of arousal, says Perham. You don’t want too much or too little arousal. “Medium arousal is best for good performance. So it might be that a general hum in the background gives an optimum level of arousal.” With that in mind, Perham suggests there may be some benefit to playing music or other sounds in an art class or other situations where creativity is key.

这位在英国卡迪夫城市大学的心理学家尼克·佩勒姆说,因为这一堆理由所以这是正确的。这位研究了声音对学习的影响,但是没有将此包含在研究之中。首先,他说,最分心的声音是趋于变化的。熟悉的背景声认为是为一个稳定状态下的声音,没有那没多听觉上的变化。他说:“因此那没有那么多吸引你的地方,没什么可分心的。”与此同时,佩勒姆说背景噪音也许会导致问题处于一个稍微兴奋的状态。你不想太清醒或太不清醒。“中等的清醒状态下是表现最佳的。因此也许背景中有一点嗡嗡声让刺激在一个最佳的层次。“ 佩勒姆考虑到这一点,表示在艺术课上或者在创造力是关键的情况下玩音乐或者其他声音。

最后编辑于:2014-08-04 23:56
分类: 英语
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