2014.07.30【英译中】你没听说过的至关重要的战役(3)

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发表于:2014-07-30 22:50 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

"What told in the French favour was their unified command," says John France. "The allies were a coalition army that had only got together for the first time four days before the battle. In those days coalition armies like that were inherently unstable."

“从法国的角度来说是他们有统一的指挥,”John France说。“作为一支联合军队,英国盟军仅仅在开展四天以前才第一次会师。在战斗进行的那些天里像那样的一支联军必然不稳定。”

King John was not at the battle. He was still in the south. But his dreams of reconquest were dashed. He returned to England, humiliated and impoverished. Less than a year later - his barons increasingly belligerent and the French now revealing their own designs on the English crown - he was forced to sign the Magna Carta, which limited his power and formed the basis of English democracy.

约翰国王没有参战,他始终都在南部。但是他重新征服法国的幻梦化为了泡影。他退回了英格兰,万分羞辱,穷困潦倒。不到一年之后,英国的贵族们更加的好战,而法国也在此时有了对英国王室的新想法——约翰王被迫签署了《大宪章》,这一宪章限制了他的权利并且构成了日后英格兰民主的奠基石。

"The road from Bouvines to Magna Carta was direct and short," says Sean McGlynn, an expert in the period at the Open University. "Bouvines was the last straw. If John had won the battle, Magna Carta could have been avoided. But it was the decisiveness of the defeat. All his taxation had gone to waste. He was weakened, and the barons saw their opportunity."

“从布维涅通往《大宪章》的道路直接而又短暂,”开放大学研究该时期的专家Sean McGlynn说。 布维涅战役是最后一根稻草。如果国王约翰赢得了这场战役的胜利,《大宪章》的签署就能够被避免。但是这是一场彻头彻尾的失败。他征收的所有赋税都付诸东流。国王元气大伤,贵族们就看到了可乘之机。

John France adds: "If the English and their allies had won at Bouvines, John would have had the plunder and the prestige. The baronial opposition would have melted away. This was that rare thing: a battle that was genuinely decisive."

John France补充道:“如果英国及其同盟军在布维涅取得了胜利,约翰王可能会赢得战利品与声誉。而贵族反对者则四散而去。这是一桩罕有的事情:一场战争是真真正正决定性的。”

And not just for the English. In France the battle is remembered today for exactly the same reason that it is forgotten in England - because France won. What followed Bouvines was a golden era for the French monarchy - the Capetian dynasty, to which Philippe-Auguste belonged, was the dominant force in Europe for the next 100 years.

不仅仅是针对英国人。在今天的法国,人们记住这场战役的原因同英国人忘掉这场战役的愿意完全一样——因为法国赢了。在布维涅战役之后是法国君主统治的全盛时期——卡佩王朝,这个菲利普-奥古斯特所属的家族是接下来的一百年间欧洲的主导力量。

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