2014.08.01【英译中】研究:过度努力或将影响语言学习效果

CaptainEthan (Captain Ethan) 初涉译坛
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发表于:2014-08-01 21:19 [只看楼主] [划词开启]



Neuroscientists have long observed that learning a language presents a different set of opportunities and challenges for adults and children.
神经科学家通过长期观察发现,对于成年人和儿童,学习一门语言所呈现出的机会和挑战是不同的。

Adults easily grasp the vocabulary needed to navigate a grocery store or order food in a restaurant, but children have an innate ability to pick up on subtle nuances of language that often elude adults.
成年人容易抓住定位一个杂货商店或者在餐馆订餐所需的词汇,但儿童天生具有识别语言细微差别的能力,这是成人无法做到的。

For example, within months of living in a foreign country, a young child may speak a second language like a native speaker.
比如说,在一个外语国家生活几个月,儿童就可以把第二语言说的像当地人一样好。

Experts believe that brain structure plays an important role in this “sensitive period” for learning language, which is believed to end around adolescence.
专家相信,大脑结构在语言学习的“敏感期”起到了重要作用,而这一阶段大概在青春期结束。

The young brain is equipped with neural circuits that can analyze sounds and build a coherent set of rules for constructing words and sentences out of those sounds.
年轻大脑的神经回路具有分析声音符号的能力,并且会建立一套合乎逻辑的规则,用来构建这些声音符号中所包含词汇和句子。

Once these language structures are established, it’s difficult to build another one for a new language.
一旦构成这些语言结构,再建立一个新的语言结构会很困难。

In a new study, a team of neuroscientists and psychologists from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) discovered another factor that contributes to adults’ language difficulties: When learning certain elements of language, adults’ more highly developed cognitive skills actually get in the way.
在一项新的研究里,麻省理工学院的一队神经科学家和心理学家发现了另一个给成年人的“语言困难”作出贡献的要素:当学习某些新的语言要素的时候,成年人高度发达的认知能力的确造成了阻碍。

The researchers discovered that the harder adults tried to learn an artificial language, the worse they were at deciphering the language’s morphology —the structure and deployment of linguistic units such as root words, suffixes, and prefixes.
研究人员发现,成年人越是努力学习一门人造语言,他们越难破译这门语言的形态学——语言学单位的结构和排布,比如词根,后缀和前缀。

“We found that effort helps you in most situations, for things like figuring out what the units of language that you need to know are, and basic ordering of elements. But when trying to learn morphology, at least in this artificial language we created, it’s actually worse when you try,” said Amy Flynn a postdoc at MIT’s McGovern Institute for Brain Research.
“我们发现,对于理解所需语言单位的意思和基本要素的排序,努力通常会有帮助。但是,当你试图学习语言形态学,至少是一门我们所创造的人工语言的时候,你越努力情况越糟糕。”艾米·弗林说道,她是麻省理工麦戈文脑研究所的博士后。

Finn and colleagues from the University of California at Santa Barbara, Stanford University, and the University of British Columbia describe their findings in journalPLOS ONE.
弗林和她来自圣巴巴拉加州大学、斯坦福大学以及英国哥伦比亚大学的同事们,在《公共科学图书馆期刊》上阐述了他们的发现。




最后编辑于:2014-10-29 21:28
分类: 英语
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