2014.08.02【英译中】研究:过度努力或将影响语言学习效果 Part2

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发表于:2014-08-02 14:09 [只看楼主] [划词开启]
Linguists have known for decades that children are skilled at absorbing certain tricky elements of language, such as irregular past participles (examples of which, in English, include “gone” and “been”) or complicated verb tenses like the subjunctive.
语言学家数十年前就认识到,儿童擅长吸收某些不好掌握的语言元素,比如不规则动词的过去分词(比如“gone”和"been")或者复杂的动词形态,如虚拟语气。

“Children will ultimately perform better than adults in terms of their command of the grammar and the structural components of language —some of the more idiosyncratic, difficult-to-articulate aspects of language that even most native speakers don’t have conscious awareness of,” Finn says.
“说到语法和语言的结构成份——一些更加具有个人特点、很难表达清楚的甚至最地道的母语人士都没有清晰认识的方面,儿童最终要比成年人掌握的好。”弗林说。

In 1990, linguist Elissa Newport hypothesized that adults have trouble learning those nuances because they try to analyze too much information at once. Adults have a much more highly developed prefrontal cortex than children, and they tend to throw all of that brainpower at learning a second language.
1990年,语言学家艾莉莎·纽波特提出假想,成年人在学习那些细微差异时会陷入麻烦是因为他们试图即时分析大量的信息。成年人比儿童具有发达得多的前额皮质,他们倾向于投入全部的脑力去学习第二语言。

This high-powered processing may actually interfere with certain elements of learning language.
这种高性能的处理方式可能事实上造成了对语言学习的某些要素的阻碍。

“It’s an idea that’s been around for a long time, but there hasn’t been any data that experimentally show that it’s true,” Finn says.
“这种想法已经存在了很长时间,但至今没有任何实验数据可以证明它的真实性。”弗林解释道。

Finn and her colleagues designed an experiment to test whether exerting more effort would help or hinder success.
弗林和她的同事们设计过一个实验来验证投入更多的努力对成功是有利还是有害。

The Study
实验过程

First, they created nine nonsense words, each with two syllables. Each word fell into one of three categories (A, B, and C), defined by the order of consonant and vowel sounds.
首先,他们创造了9个无意义的双音节单词。这些单词被归为三类(A,B和C),每一类的元辅音排序方式不同。

Study subjects listened to the artificial language for about 10 minutes. One group of subjects was told not to overanalyze what they heard, but not to tune it out either.
受试者听这些人造语言10分钟。第一组受试者被要求既不能过度分析,也不能完全无视其所听内容。

To help them not overthink the language, they were given the option of completing a puzzle or coloring while they listened. The other group was told to try to identify the words they were hearing.
为了帮他们不过度分析这些语言,他们要在听的同时完成一道谜题或填充一幅彩色画。另一组受试者被要求尽力去识别他们正在学习的单词。

Each group heard the same recording, which was a series of three-word sequences —first a word from category A, then one from category B, then category C —with no pauses between words.
每一组受试者听得是相同的录音,录音是三个词组成的序列,第一个词出自A类,第二个出自B类,而第三个出自C类,每两个词之间没有停顿。


Previous studies have shown that adults, babies, and even monkeys can parse this kind of information into word units  , a task known as word segmentation.

之前的研究表明,成人、婴儿甚至猴子都可以把这类信息分解成词素单位,这种任务被称为“分词”。

Subjects from both groups were successful at word segmentation, although the group that tried harder performed a little better. Both groups also performed well in a task called word ordering, which required subjects to choose between a correct word sequence (ABC) and an incorrect sequence (such as ACB) of words they had previously heard.
两组受试者都成功的完成了分词任务,尽管更专心的那一组完成的更好一些。两组受试者也都在词汇排序任务中完成的不错,这个任务要求受试者根据他们所听到的词汇,从一个正确的(ABC)序列和一个错误的(ACB)的序列中做出选择。
分类: 英语
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