20140810 【英译中】 植物也说话

nikkijiang (唯愿在鲜美之时遇见你) 路人甲
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发表于:2014-08-10 22:49 [只看楼主] [划词开启]


Talking Plants

植物也交流

A new study finds that plants communicate with one another to warn of danger

新的研究发现植物相互交流以传递预警信息

MAY 05, 2014

By VeroniqueGreenwoodfor TIME

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Tomato plants talk to their neighbors to warn of diseases or infestations.

西红柿向邻居警告疾病和感染的危险。


We tend to think of plants as the furniture of the natural world. They don’t move, they don’t make sounds, they don’t seem to respond to anything—at least not very quickly. Grass doesn’t cry when you cut it, flowers don’t scream when they’re picked. But as is often the case, our human view of the world misses quite a lot. Plants talk to each other all the time. And the language is chemical.

人们倾向于认为植物是大自然的装饰品。它们不能移动,不能发出声响,看起来不对任何事情做出反应——至少它们反应没那么快。割草的时候,我们没有听见草哭,摘花的时候也饿没有听见花儿尖叫。但是情况常常如此,人类对世界的认知有严重的缺失(还是要谢谢爱吃面的小妞和Colahe提点)——植物一直都在说话。它们的语言是化学物。

 

Over the years, scientists have reported that different types of plants, from trees to tomatoes, release compounds into the air to help neighboring plants. These chemical warnings all have the same purpose—to spread information about one plant’s disease or infestation so other plants can defend themselves. But exactly how plants receive and act on many of these signals is still mysterious.

经过多年的研究,科学家们发现不同种类的植物(谢谢Colahe帮助指正:)),从树木到西红柿都向空气中释放化合物以帮助周边的植物。这种化学警告都为同一个目的——传递某颗植物被染疾或传染的信息,警告其他植物做好防御准备(谢谢爱吃面的小妞和Colahe)。但是植物如何接受信息和对信息做出反应仍然是个谜。


In this week’s Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers inJapanoffer some explanations. They have identified one chemical message and traced it all the way from release to action.

本周的国家科学会进程报告中,日本的研究者提供了解释。他们定位了一种化学信息,并对此信息从释放到做出反应的过程进行了跟踪。


The scientists looked at tomato plants infested by a common pest, the cutworm caterpillar. To start out, they grew plants in two plastic compartments connected by a tube. One plant was infested and placed upwind and the other was uninfested and placed downwind. The downwind plants were later exposed to the cutworm caterpillar. The results showed that plants that had previously been near sick neighbors were able to defend themselves better against the caterpillar.

科学家观察一颗被糖蛾侵袭的西红柿。一开始,科学家在2个塑料棚中种了植物,这2个塑料棚由一根管子连接。逆风处生长的是感染了的植物,顺风处是没有受到感染的植物。结果没过多久顺风处的植物也遭到糖蛾的侵袭。这个结果告诉我们植物可以更好的抵御糖蛾的侵袭如果它之前的邻居也受过感染。


Friendly Warnings

友好的警示

The researchers also studied leaves from exposed and unexposed plants. They found one compound showed up more often in the exposed plants. The substance is called HexVic. When the scientists fed HexVic to cutworms, it knocked down their survival rate by 17%. The scientists identified the source of HexVic, and sprayed it lightly over healthy plants. Those plants were then able to start producing the caterpillar-killing HexVic. Researchers confirmed that uninfested plants have to build their own weapon to fight off bugs and diseases. How do they know when to play defense? They are warned first by their friendly plant neighbors.

科学家也研究了感染和未感染糖蛾的植物的叶子。他们发现收到感染的植物的叶子上一种化合物的含量更高,出现得更多。这种物质被称为HexVic。科学家给糖蛾喂食HexVic的化合物后,糖蛾的生存率降低了17%。科学家定位了HexVic的来源,并在健康植物周围喷洒此化合物。随后这些被喷洒了HexVic的植物开始产生杀死糖蛾的HexVic。研究者证实未被侵袭的植物不得不制造武器以抵挡虫子和疾病。它们是怎么知道什么时候开始发起防御了?它们友好的邻居一开始就发出了警告。


It is a complex tale, and it may be happening in more plant species than tomatoes. It may also be happening with more chemical signals that are still unknown to us. For now though, we know that plants not only communicate, they look out for one another.

这是一个非常复杂的现象,它可能发生在除西红柿之外更多的植物物种上。这种现象可能含有更多未被人类发现的化学信号。现在我们知道植物不仅会交流,而且它们彼此关照。


最后编辑于:2014-08-13 11:30
分类: 英语
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