2014.09.14【英译中】研究:忙碌使人们对规则无暇以顾

mandysunshin (蔓) 译坛新宠
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发表于:2014-09-14 15:53 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

Source:http://blogs.hbr.org/2014/09/research-were-too-busy-to-follow-the-rules/

文章摘自《哈佛商业评论》,仅供学习、参考。


Research: We’re Too Busy to Follow the Rules
研究:忙碌使人们对规则无暇以顾
by Gretchen Gavett  |   8:00 AM September 10, 2014 


Long hours spent working in a demanding environment can exhaust you, sure. But according to new research, there’s another hidden cost attached to an intense day: neglecting those secondary tasks that, while not as visible or lauded by your boss, might be essential to the safety or ethics of your organization.
毋庸置疑,长时间在一个高强度的环境中工作让人筋疲力尽。然而,根据一项新的研究,与高强度的一天对应存在着隐形代价,即忽略那些次要、不被你的老板注意或称赞的任务,而这些可能对你所在组织的安全或道德准则至关重要。


But there’s a little bit of good news, too: Taking regular, significant breaks can make a big difference.
但是,也有一点好消息,那就是,有规律且适当的休息能改善这种现象。


A new paper, which will be published in an upcoming issue of the Journal of Applied Psychology, is the first to measure “whether accumulated work demands can impact rule compliance over the course of a single day.” The authors, Wharton’s Hengchen Dai and Katherine Milkman, along with Kenan-Flagler Business School professors David Hofmann and Bradley Staats, hypothesize that as a worker advances through a shift, his or her compliance with “professional standards”— things like hand washing at a hospital, for example— will decrease, and be even more marked when the intensity of the work is higher or after working many cumulative shifts. In addition, they posit that when workers take time off between shifts, they’ll be more likely to comply with professional standards when they return to work.
即将在《应用心理杂志》上发表的一篇新论文,首次对“关于累积的工作要求是否会影响一天的规则服从”这一议题进行论证。论文的作者,沃顿的戴恒成和卡瑟琳.密克曼、北卡罗来纳大学商学院教授大卫.霍夫曼和布莱德利.斯戴特,假设当一个员工继续轮班,那么他/她服从专业规则(例如医院员工洗手的行为)将减少,而这种现象在更高强度的工作或连续的轮班后更加明显。此外,他们假设,如果员工在轮班期间有所休息,那么当他们重新回到工作岗位后将更加遵守专业规则。


All of this turned out to be true.
事实上,经验证,以上的假设都是正确的。


The researchers tested their hypotheses by tracking hand hygiene at hospitals for three reasons: 1) It’s one of the most effective ways to reduce infection risk; 2) working at a hospital is demanding and often involves long shifts; and 3) hand washing, while vital, is often not viewed as a nurse or doctor’s primary task.
研究员通过追踪医院内的双手卫生清洁来证实他们的假设,这样的选择主要有以下三项理由:(1)这是减少感染风险的有效方法之一。(2)在医院工作是高强度的并且常常要长时间地轮班。(3)洗手虽然很重要,但也是一项不常被看见的护士或医生的基本工作。


They studied RFID technology data from more than 4,000 caregivers at 37 hospitals using Proventix, a monitor that measures when employees use hand soap and hand sanitizer dispensers. In total, there were 14,286,448 unique hand hygiene opportunities. It turned out that the majority of workers weren’t in compliance at all, and the compliance got worse as the day went on. “When we first plotted the raw data, we were surprised by the significant, strong decline we observed in hand hygiene over the course of a single shift,” lead author and fifth-year doctoral student Hengchen Dai told me.
他们通过Proventix,一个测量雇员什么时候使用洗手皂和净化剂自动发放机的监视器,研究来自37家医院的超过4000名看护的射频识别技术数据。总的来说,期间有14286448个进行双手卫生清洁的机会。而事实表明,大部分员工根本没有做到,并且这种情况随着工作日的开展愈加糟糕。论文的主要作者并且已是第五年的博士生戴恒成告诉我,“当我们首次绘制这些原始数据时,发现一次轮班过程中双手卫生清洁显著、大幅减少的情况,我们感到十分震惊。”


While these numbers are scary enough, they don’t necessarily mean that increased fatigue over the course of a shift is the direct cause of the drop. So the researchers tested the results against work intensity. They found that working more hours, exacerbated by working in more intense situations — which made it more difficult for employees to switch gears — led employees to wash their hands even less frequently.
尽管这些数据很惊人,但是并不必然地意味着,轮班过程中的疲劳加剧是上述现象的直接原因。因此,研究员们再一次测试工作强度的结果。他们发现,长时间工作,甚至更高强度的工作,使员工更难以换衣服,结果导致使员工更少洗手。


Significantly, these effects were spotted after mere hours.
显然,这些影响在仅仅几小时内便突显出来。


“Most research on the length and intensity of work days has focused on the long-term impact of work demands on work engagement and job performance,” said Dai. “We highlight the immediate costs of work demands that can accumulate within even a few hours of the start of a busy work day. Our findings are consistent with this notion that this constant switching of gears can wear out our self-regulatory muscles, leading us to focus more on primary tasks and devote less attention to secondary tasks.”
戴说,“关于工作日的长度与强度的许多研究,已经聚焦于高强度工作对于工作参与和工作表现的长期影响。我们确定,在忙碌的工作日,仅仅是在开始的几个小时内,工作强度的即时代价就不断地在积累。频繁的换装会消耗掉自我调节力量,使我们更专注于基本工作而忽略次要工作,我们的发现正好验证了这一点。


While this is a problem for hospital administrators and other health care managers, secondary-task fatigue could also play out in other fields, according to Dai, like oil field services workers who must comply with safety regulations, or investment bankers (notorious for working long hours) who need to pay attention to trading rules.
然而,这对于医院行政者和其他卫生护理管理者是一个问题,次要工作的疲劳也出现在其他领域。据戴所言,就像燃油领域服务的工作者必须遵从安全规则,或者投资银行家(众所周知地必须长时间工作)必须注意交易规则。


But there are steps managers can take to keep employees attuned to secondary tasks. For one, the research found that having time off between shifts resulted in a boost in compliance, particularly if the employee had a longer rest after working longer hours. “After caregivers take a longer break from work, their compliance becomes higher on the subsequent shift,” Dai said. “Based on past research, we would expect that the more relaxed and disengaged from work people feel during a break, the more likely they will be to benefit from taking time off.”
但是,各级管理者可以采取措施使雇员们适应次要的工作。例如,研究发现,在轮班期间有适当的休息可以增加服从的出现,尤其是当雇员在长时间工作后有更长的时间休息。“当工作后的看护得到长时间的休息,他们在随后的轮班中能表现出更高的服从性。”戴说,“基于过去的研究,我们相信,在休息中人们感到越轻松以及越脱离工作,他们可能从休息中得益越多。”


Dai recommends that managers develop ways to remind employees of their secondary tasks, particularly on the tail end of a shift, and to think about implementing different types of interventions throughout the workday that can “alter the daily pace of work and help employees recover their self-regulatory capacity periodically.” She also says that supervisors can encourage others (and remind themselves) to take advantage of activities that research shows can combat fatigue, like taking a nap or looking at natural scenery.
戴建议管理者试图采取措施来提醒雇员注意次要的工作,尤其是在轮班的最后,并且考虑在工作日中补充各种不同的休息方式,以便“调整日常的工作节奏并且阶段性地帮助雇员恢复自身的能力“。她同时指出,主管们可以鼓励其他人(并且提醒他们)充分利用研究表明的可以消除疲劳的活动,例如打个小盹或者看一下自然风光。


In other words, here’s more evidence that we all need to go for a walk.
换言之,事实证明我们都需要去散散步,轻松一下。


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