2014.05.05【英译中】地下废水处理能远距离诱发地震

Z874033402 (小鱼) 路人甲
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发表于:2014-05-06 17:07 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

  Oil and gas development activities, including underground disposal of wastewater andhydraulic(液压的) fracturing, may induce earthquakes by changing the state of stress on existing faults to the point of failure. Earthquakes from wastewater disposal may be triggered at tens of kilometers from the wellbore, which is a greater range than previously thought, according to research to be presented today at the annual meeting of the Seismological Society of America (SSA). As an indication of the growing significance of man-made earthquakes on seismic hazard, SSA annual meeting will feature a special session to discuss new research findings and approaches to incorporating induced seismicity into seismic hazard assessments and maps. The number of earthquakes within central and eastern United States has increased dramatically over the past few years, coinciding with increased hydraulic fracturing of horizontally drilled wells, and the injection of wastewater in deep disposal wells in many locations, including Colorado, Oklahoma, Texas, Arkansas and Ohio. According to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), an average rate of 100 earthquakes per year above a magnitude 3.0 occurred in the three years from 2010-2012, compared with an average rate of 21 events per year observed from 1967-2000.

   随着石油的开发,包括地下污水的排放处理及对地表的水压的改变,很有可能通过改变达到现有的地表抵抗压力的临界点而引发地震。美国地震学会的年会研究展示表明,污水处置会引发地震,也许是由砖井空喷发出来大量的液体有关,比先前想象的有很大的变化。随着越来越多的迹象表明,很多地质灾害都是人为的。SSA年会将要有一个特别的时期去讨论新的发现,去把诱发地震活动性归入地震灾害评估中。美国中东部发生地震的次数在过去的几年中有了显著的增加。巧合的是,很多地方(包括科罗拉多、俄克拉荷马、德克萨斯、阿肯色和俄亥俄州)管井的水压致裂和向深处理井中注入污水也有着明显的增加。根据美国地质调查局的调查,在过去的2010到2012三年中,震级超过三级的地震平均起来每年要有100次,相比之下,从1967年到2000年的观察来看,平均每年发生超过三级震级的地震仅仅21次。

 

  "Induced seismicity complicates the seismic hazard equation," said Gail Atkinson, professor of earth sciences at Western University in Ontario Canada, whose research details how a new source of seismicity, such as an injection disposal well, can fundamentally alter the potential seismic hazard in an area.

 “诱发地震活动性使地震灾害的诱发因素更加复杂化”加拿大安大略的西部大学地球研究院的教授盖尔阿特金森说道,他的研究详细的说明了地震产生的新因素,比如向处理井中注射污水,从根本上改变了一个地区潜在的地震灾害。

 

  For critical structures, such as dams, nuclear power plants and other major facilities, Atkinson suggests that the hazard from induced seismicity can overwhelm the hazard from pre-existing natural seismicity, increasing the risk to structures that were originally designed for regions of low to moderate seismic activity.

   对于关键结构,例如堤坝,核电站和其他的主体设施,阿特金森建议说,诱发地震活动超过了先前存在的自然地震,使原本要使低地区减少地震活动的设计设施也增加了很大的风险。

  A new study of the Jones earthquake swarm, occurring near Oklahoma City since 2008, demonstrates that a small cluster of high-volume injection wells triggered earthquakes tens of  kilometers away. Both increasing pore pressure and the number of earthquakes were observed migrating away from the injection wells.

  自2008年以来发生在俄克拉荷马州附近琼斯地震群的新的研究发现,一小群的高容量的处理井的灌注诱发了数万千米的地震。通过观察孔隙压力和地震的数量,发现地震时沿着注射井向外蔓延的。

 

  "The existing criteria for an induced earthquake do not allow earthquakes associated with the well activity to occur this far away from the wellbore," said Katie Keranen, assistant professor of geophysics at Cornell University, who led the study of the Jones earthquake swarm. "Our results, using seismology and hydrogeology, show a strong link between a small number of wells and earthquakes migrating up to 50 kilometers away" said Keranen. The study's result will be presented by co-author Geoff Abers, senior research scientist at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory.

 “目前存在的诱发地震的判断标准中是不会把发生的地震和远在千里之外的砖井孔联系在一起的。”在康奈尔大学协助地球物理学家教授的凯迪凯润说道,这位教授引领着琼斯地震群的研究。“运用地震学和水文地质学,我们得出的结果显示一小群的砖井和迁移到50千米外的地震有着紧密的联系”凯润说。合作者杰夫阿贝尔是在地球研究所工作的高级研究科学家,将会把这个研究的结果公布出来。

 


  

  

最后编辑于:2014-05-07 15:53
分类: 英语
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