2014.5.26【英译中】Why do we say 'bless you' or 'gesundheit' when people sneeze?

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发表于:2014-05-26 14:56 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

Why do we say 'bless you' or 'gesundheit' when people sneeze?

有人打喷嚏时,我们为什么会说“祝福你”或“祝你健康”?

Many people have become accustomed to saying "bless you" or "gesundheit" when someone sneezes. No one says anything when someone coughs, blows their nose or burps, so why do sneezes get special treatment? What do those phrases actually mean, anyway?
当有人打喷嚏时,很多人习惯说“祝福你”或“祝你健康”。但是有人咳嗽,喘气或打嗝时,人们往往不会说什么祝福语。那么为什么打喷嚏会得到特别的关注呢?实际上这些短语又是什么意思呢?
Wishing someone well after they sneeze probably originated thousands of years ago. The Romans would say "Jupiter preserve you" or "Salve," which meant "good health to you," and the Greeks would wish each other "long life." The phrase "God bless you" is attributed to Pope Gregory the Great, who uttered it in the sixth century during a bubonic plague epidemic (sneezing is an obvious symptom of one form of the plague).
在有人打喷嚏时,祝愿他们安好,这一习俗起源于几千年前。罗马人会说“木星保佑你”或“安慰”,意思是“祝你身体健康”。希腊人则会祝愿每个人“长寿”。“上帝保佑你”这一短语起源于罗马教皇格雷戈里,在六世纪黑死病泛滥时,他说出的这句话(打喷嚏是一种瘟疫的明显征兆)。
The exchangeable term "gesundheit" comes from Germany, and it literally means "health." The idea is that a sneeze typically precedes illness. It entered the English language in the early part of the 20th century, brought to the United States by German-speaking immigrants.
“祝你健康”这一术语来源于德国,字面意思是“健康”。他们认为打喷嚏代表着即将感染疾病。在20世纪早期,这一短语由德国移民带入了美国,开始在英语国家英语国家盛行。

Virtually every country around the globe has its own way of wishing sneezers well. People in Arabic countries say, "Alhamdulillah," which means, "praise be to God." Hindus say, "Live!" or "Live well!" Some countries have special sneezing responses for children. In Russia, after children are given the traditional response, "bud zdorov" ("be healthy"), they are also told "rosti bolshoi" ("grow big"). When a child sneezes in China, he or she will hear "bai sui," which means, "may you live 100 years."
事实上,世上每个国家在表达对打喷嚏者的祝愿时,都有自己的方式。阿拉伯语国家的人会说“感谢真主”,意思是“赞美归于上帝”。印度教徒会说“活着”或“好好活着”。一些国家对小孩子打喷嚏有着特殊的反应。在俄罗斯,人们在给予传统祝福“愿你健康”后,还会祝愿孩子“长得高大”。在中国孩子啊打喷嚏时,会听到人们对他或她说“百岁”,意思是“愿你长命百岁”。

For the most part, the various sneeze responses originated from ancient superstitions. Some people believed that a sneeze causes the soul to escape the body through the nose. Saying "bless you" would stop the devil from claiming the person's freed soul. Others believed the opposite: that evil spirits use the sneeze as an opportunity to enter a person's body. There was also the misconception that the heartmomentarily stops during a sneeze (it doesn't), and that saying "bless you" was a way of welcoming the person back to life.

多数情况下,对打喷嚏的各种反应,都是源于封建迷信。一些人认为,打喷嚏会导致灵魂通过鼻子脱离身体。说“保佑你”可以阻止魔鬼宣布人的灵魂释放。还有一些人有着截然不同的想法:恶灵会趁打喷嚏时,进入人的身体。还有一些错误观念认为,打喷嚏时心跳会停止(实际并没有),说“祝福你”是欢迎你重返生命。

We now know that sneezing is a reflex action and is most often the sign of something relatively benign, such as a cold or allergy. A sneeze also can be provoked by being outside in the sunlight or from smellinga strong odor. Still, we persist in the custom of saying "bless you" or "gesundheit," mainly out of habit and common courtesy.
我们现在都知道,打喷嚏只是一种反射行为。通常来说,它可能暗示着某种病症的开始,例如感冒或过敏。在户外阳光下或闻道刺激性气味,也有可能打喷嚏。我们仍然坚持说“祝福你”或“祝你健康”,这是出于一种习惯和礼貌。

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