2014.5.29【英译中】怎样使冻住的油点着(1)

zorann (小桉Fiona) 路人甲
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发表于:2014-05-29 17:13 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

 

How to Set Fire to Frozen Oil

By Kat Long

In the Arctic, climate change means melting ice—and unprecedented access to the oil once hidden beneath it. But with increased drilling comes a greater chance for oil spills in frigid places where the sun doesn’t rise from November to January. Now, a new study explores how petroleum, fire, and ice interact during oil spill cleanups and suggests that oil and (frozen) water do mix—just not in the way researchers expected.
在北极,气候的变化意味着冰层会融化-并能够接触到隐藏其下的空前的石油。但是,伴随着钻井,从太阳不会升起的1月到11月(极夜么?)会带来石油泄漏的几率增大。现在,一项研究探讨了在溢油清理的时候石油、火和冰如何相互作用,并且表明了油和冻起来的水如何混合,虽然结果并不像研究人员预期的那样。
One common method for cleaning up oil spills is called in situ burning, in which technicians set the fuel slick on fire to vaporize its components. This works reasonably well in warm environments like the Gulf of Mexico, where the spilled oil can be corralled inside inflatable booms before being set alight. Because heat makes oil less viscous, it’s easier to ignite. Under those circumstances, 90% of the collected oil can be burned away efficiently, and workers can collect the rest of the residue mechanically.
一个普通的清理溢油的方法是就地焚烧,技术人员把燃料化学消油剂与之混合然后点火,使油蒸发。这个方法在温暖的地区很合理,像墨西哥湾,溢油能够在被焚烧之前围在充气式围栏里。因为热量使油的黏度降低,那么更容易燃烧。在这种情况下,百分之九十的手机石油能够被有效地焚烧,工人能够用机械收集其余的残渣。

But no one knows how effective in situ burning would be in an icy environment like the Arctic. Extreme cold tends to separate crude
oil’s chemical components and makes ignition more difficult. And even if you get the spill lit, the cold weather makes it difficult to maintain enough heat to keep it burning over many square miles. Natural evaporation also plays a crucial part in traditional, warm-weather spill management, says Chris Reddy, an environmental chemist at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Massachusetts, who was not affiliated with the new work. “In cold weather, evaporation happens slowly. Forty percent of the oil in the Deepwater
Horizon
spill [in the Gulf] evaporated without any human action, but that wouldn’t happen in the Arctic.”

但是没有人知道就地焚烧在北极这种冰冷环境下的效率。极端寒冷往往使原油的化学成分分散开并且不易点燃。即使你把它点着了,寒冷的天气也难以维持足够的热量让几平方英里的油燃烧。自然蒸发也在传统的、温暖环境下的溢油管理发挥了很重要的作用,来自马萨诸塞州的伍兹霍尔海洋研究所的环境化学家克里斯·雷迪说,他不是承担新的工作,“在寒冷环境下,蒸发进行的很缓慢,在深水地平线的漏油事故(墨西哥湾)中,百分之四十的石油是在非人工干扰下蒸发的,这个情况不会发生在北极。”


今天的作业,有几个还是不是很清楚的,麻烦大家了哦。。。

@花甲吉吉   @猫某米人   @夕遗  @neilalien

 

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