2014.05.30【英译中】玩耍是一件严肃的事(二)

SuzumiYuki (清水有希) 路人甲
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发表于:2014-05-30 13:21 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

D.     Then there’s the skills- training hypothesis. At first glance, playing animals do appear to be practising the complex manoeuvres they will need in adulthood. But a closer inspection reveals this interpretation as too simplistic. In one study, behavioural ecologist Tim Caro, from the University of California, looked at the predatory play of kittens and their predatory behaviour when they reached adulthood. He found that the way the cats played had no significant effect on their hunting prowess in later life.
然后是技能训练假说。乍一看,玩耍的动物们好像是在练习它们成年后可能会用到的复杂技巧。但是近距离的观察发现这种解释太天真了。在一个研究中,来自于加利福尼亚大学的行为生物学家蒂姆·卡洛观察了小猫咪的捕食游戏和大猫咪的捕猎行为。他发现小猫咪玩耍的方式对他们其后的捕猎行为没有显著影响。

E.      Earlier this year, Sergio Pellis of Lethbridge University, Canada, reported that there is a strong positive link between brain size and playfulness among mammals in general. Comparing measurements for fifteen orders of mammals, he and his team found large brains (for a given body size) are linked to greater playfulness.
今年早些时候,加拿大莱斯布里奇大学的塞尔吉奥·佩里斯的报告中提到在动物的脑容量和爱玩的天性间有很强的正向联系。在测量并比较了十五种动物的表现之后,他和他的团队发现更大的相对脑容量和更大的爱玩天性之间有关。

The converse was also found to be true. Robert Barton of Durham University believes that, because large brains are more sensitive to developmental stimuli than smaller brains, they require more play to help mould them for adulthood. ‘I concluded it’s to do with learning, and with the importance of environmental data to the brain during development,’ he says.
这个观点也被证实了。杜伦大学的罗伯特·巴顿相信因为更大的大脑比之更小的大脑对于成长中的刺激更敏感,它们需要更多的玩耍来为成年做准备。“我总结它与学习有关,也与成长中环境资料对于大脑影响的重要性有关。”巴顿说道。

F.      According to Byers, the timing of the playful stage in young animals provides an important clue to what’s going on. If you plot the amount of time juvenile devotes to play each day over the course of its development, you discover a pattern typically associated with a ‘sensitive period’ – a brief development window during which the brain can actually be modified in ways that are not possible earlier or later in life. Think of the relative ease with which young children – but not infants or adults – absorb language. Other researchers have found that play in cats, rats and mice is at its most intense just as this ‘window of opportunity” reaches its peak.
根据柏尔斯的理论,幼体动物爱好玩耍的时间段是揭示玩耍作用的一条重要线索。如果你对幼生动物在成长中每天花在玩耍上的时间进行测算,你会发现它们总是和“感知期”紧密相连。“感知期”是动物成长的一个简明缩影,在此期间大脑会建立自己的秩序,这件事在动物成长的其他时期都不可能办到。想想小孩子学习语言的相关例子,婴儿和成人都不能做得那么好。其他研究者发现喵咪,老鼠和耗子的玩耍也在“感知期”这一“机会之窗”期间达到了顶峰。

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