2014.05.30【英译中】玩耍是一件严肃的事(三)

SuzumiYuki (清水有希) 路人甲
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发表于:2014-05-30 13:23 [只看楼主] [划词开启]


G.     ‘People have not paid enough attention to the amount of the brain activated by plays,’ says Marc Bekoff from Colorado University. Bekoff studied coyote pups at play and found that the kind of behaviour involved was markedly more variable and unpredictable than that of adults. Such behaviour activates many different parts of the brain, he reasons. Bekoff likens it to a behavioural kaleidoscope, with animals at play jumping rapidly between activities. ‘They use behaviour from a lot of different contexts – predation, aggression, reproduction,’ he says. ‘Their developing brain is getting all sorts of stimulation.’

“人们没有注意到玩耍对大脑的发展有多重要,”科罗拉多大学的马克•贝科夫说。贝科夫研究玩耍的小土狼,发现小土狼在玩耍中涉及到的动作比之成年土狼的动作明显更多变,也更难以预料。这种行为可以调动大脑中的许多部分,他解释道。贝科夫把这种现象比作一种行为万花筒,因为玩耍的动物在活动上变化很快。“它们会用到在很多情景中的动作——捕猎,攻击,生殖,”他说道。“它们成长的大脑得到了各种刺激。”


H.     Not only is more of the brain involved in play that was suspected, but it also seems to activate higher cognitive processes. ‘There’s enormous cognitive involvement in play,’ says Bekoff. He points out that play often involves complex assessments of playmates, ideas of reciprocity and the use of specialised signals and rules. He believes that play creates a brain that has greater behavioural flexibility and improved potential for learning later in life. 
研究者不光怀疑玩耍可以调动更多的脑域,玩耍好像还能激活更高的感知过程。“玩耍中涉及到很多感知内容,”贝科夫说。他指出玩耍中常含有对于玩伴的复杂评估,互惠的想法和特殊信号和规则的使用。他认为玩耍能够让动物的大脑更有行为灵活性和稍后的学习潜力。


The idea is backed up by the work of Stephen Siviy of Gettysburg College. Siviy studied how bouts of play affected the brain’s levels of particular chemical associated with the stimulation and growth of nerve cells. He was surprised by the extent of the activation. ‘Play just lights everything up,’ he says. By allowing link-ups between brain areas that might not normally communicate with each other, play may enhance creativity.
盖提斯堡学院的史蒂芬•赛维的研究支持了这一想法。赛维研究的是一段时间的玩耍是如何影响大脑中某种特殊物质含量的。这种特殊物质与大脑中的刺激和神经细胞增长有关。他被玩耍居然能在这么大程度上提升这种物质含量震惊了。“玩耍点亮了整个大脑,”他说。玩耍同样可以加强创造力,因为它可以把平常不联系在一起的脑域联系起来。


I.        What might further experimentation suggest about the way children are raised in many societies today? We already know that rat pups denied the chance to play grow smaller brain components and fail to develop the ability to apply social rules when they interact with their peers. With schooling beginning earlier and becoming increasingly exam-orientated, play is likely to get even less of a look-in. Who knows what the result of that will be?
对于当今社会孩子们受到教育的方式,进一步的实验研究又能给出什么建议呢?我们现在已经知道,被剥夺了玩耍机会的鼠宝宝们大脑长得较小,而且不能在和同类交流时发展出使用社会规则的能力。随着入学年龄的减小以及应试教育下的学校生活,看起来玩耍会越来越少。谁知道这会导致什么结果呢?


最后编辑于:2014-10-29 20:55
分类: 英语
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