2014.06.08【英译中】Funny or Die

丑帽 (帽子) 路人甲
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发表于:2014-06-09 04:02 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

How your sense of humor can improve your health, get you pregnant, and even save your life

对于幽默感能改善你的健康,让你怀孕,甚至救你一命,你怎么看?



Laughter is the best medicine, or so the cliché goes. Actually, given the choice between laughter and, say, penicillin or chemotherapy, you’re probably better off choosing one of the latter. Still, a great deal of research shows that humor is extraordinarily therapeutic, mentally and physically.

大笑是最好的药,或许是陈词滥调了。事实上,若要在大笑和说话,青霉素或化疗做出选择,你最好不要选后者。直到现在,大量研究表明幽默是非常特别的治疗,不论是在身体上还是精神上。


Laughing in the face of tragedy seems to shield a person from its effects. A 2013 review of studies found that among elderly patients, laughter significantly alleviated the symptoms of depression [1]. Another study, published early this year, found that firefighters who used humor as a coping strategy were somewhat protected from PTSD [2]. Laughing also seems to ease more-quotidian anxieties. One group of researchers found that watching an episode of Friends (specifically, Season Five’s “The One Where Everybody Finds Out”) was as effective at improving a person’s mood as listening to music or exercising, and more effective than resting [3].

在灾难中脸上的笑似乎能保护一个人。一份2013的研究述评发现,大部分老年患者通过大笑明显减轻抑郁症的症状。另一个今年初发布的研究发现,消防员把幽默作为一种应对策略克服一些创伤后应激障碍。笑似乎能缓解普通的焦虑。一个研究小组发现看一集《老友记》(特别是第5季的“人人都发现了”)的作用和听音乐或运动一样,都能让一个人的心情变好,效果比休息还要好。


Tip: 创伤后应激障碍( PTSD)是指个体经历、目睹或遭遇到一个或多个涉及自身或他人的实际死亡,或受到死亡的威胁,或严重的受伤,或躯体完整性受到威胁后,所导致的个体延迟出现和持续存在的精神障碍。PTSD的发病率报道不一,女性比男性更易发展为PTSD。


Laughter even seems to have a buffering effect against physical pain. A 2012 study found that subjects who were shown a funny video displayed higher pain thresholds than those who saw a serious documentary [4]. In another study, postsurgical patients requested less pain medication after watching a funny movie of their choosing [5].

大笑似乎甚至能缓解身体疼痛。一份2012年的研究表明,测试者观看一个有趣的视频比起看一部严肃的纪录片更能忍痛(= = 忽然一点都不严肃的感觉)。在另一个研究中,术后患者在看完一部有趣的电影后会选择要较少的药物治疗。


Other literature identifies even more specific health benefits: laughing reduced arterial-wall stiffness (which is associated with cardiovascular disease) [6]. Women undergoing in vitro fertilization were 16 percent more likely to get pregnant when entertained by a clown dressed as a chef [7]. And a regular old clown improved lung function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [8]. More generally, a mirthful life is likely to be a long one. A study of Norwegians found that having a sense of humor correlated with a high probability of surviving into retirement [9].

其他资料证明了更加具体的健康价值:降低动脉僵硬度(这是与心血管疾病有关)。当被一个小丑穿得像一个厨师逗乐时,体外受精的妇女有16%的机率更易怀孕。一个普通的老年小丑在治疗慢性阻塞性肺病改善了肺功能。普遍说,开心的生活很有可能活得更久。挪威人的一个研究发现有幽默感关系着很有可能活到退休


Unfortunately, there’s a not-so-funny footnote to all this: the people who are best at telling jokes tend to have more health problems than the people laughing at them. A study of Finnish police officers found that those who were seen as funniest smoked more, weighed more, and were at greater risk of cardiovascular disease than their peers [10]. Entertainers typically die earlier than other famous people [11], and comedians exhibit more “psychotic traits” than others[12]. So just as there’s research to back up the conventional wisdom on laughter’s curative powers, there also seems to be truth to the stereotype that funny people aren’t always having much fun. It might feel good to crack others up now and then, but apparently the audience gets the last laugh.

不幸的是,这一切有一个不那么有趣的补充说明:擅长讲笑话的人比嘲笑他们的人更容易有健康问题。芬兰警察的一项研究发现,那些被认为是滑稽的人吸更多烟,更胖,和比起同龄人更易得心血管疾病。艺人通常比其他著名的人死得早,喜剧演员比其他人表现出更多的“精神病性状”。所以如果只有这些研究来支持传统智慧的笑声的疗效,似乎事实上这也只是一个传统观念,有趣的人并不经常获得很多乐趣。它可能会不时感觉好时打击其他人,但显然笑到最后的是观众。



The Studies:

[1] Shaw, “Does Laughter Therapy Improve Symptoms of Depression Among the Elderly Population?” (PCOM Physician Assistant Studies dissertation, 2013)

“大笑疗法能改善大部分老年人的抑郁症症状吗?”(PCOM医师助理研究论文,2013)

[2] Sliter et al., “Is Humor the Best Medicine?” (Journal of Organizational Behavior, Feb. 2014)

幽默是最好的药吗?(行为组织杂志,2014,2月)

[3] Szabo et al., “Experimental Comparison of the Psychological Benefits of Aerobic Exercise, Humor, and Music” (Humor, Sept. 2005)

关于有氧运动,幽默和音乐的心理效应的实验比较(《幽默》,2005,9月)

[4] Dunbar et al., “Social Laughter Is Correlated With an Elevated Pain Threshold” (Proceedings of the Royal Society B, March 2012)

“社会笑声与一种痛阈值升高有关”(《英国皇家学会B》的记录,2012。3月)

[5] Rotton and Shats, “Effects of State Humor, Expectancies, and Choice on Postsurgical Mood and Self-Medication” (Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Oct. 1996)

在预期上,幽默状态对术后情绪和自我药疗的影响和选择应用社会心理学杂志1996,10月

[6] Vlachopoulos et al., “Divergent Effects of Laughter and Mental Stress on Arterial Stiffness and Central Hemodynamics” (Psychosomatic Medicine, May 2009)

笑声的发散作用心理压力对动脉硬化和中枢血流动力学心身医学研究2009,5月

[7] Friedler et al., “The Effect of Medical Clowning on Pregnancy Rates After In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer” (Fertility and Sterility, May 2011)

医疗小丑在体外受精的怀孕率和胚胎移植上的作用(生育与不育2011,5月

[8] Brutsche et al., “Impact of Laughter on Air Trapping in Severe Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease” (International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, March 2008)

笑声空气滞留对严重的慢性阻塞性肺病的影响(国际慢性阻塞性肺病杂志2008,3月

[9] Svebak et al., “A 7-Year Prospective Study of Sense of Humor and Mortality in an Adult County Population” (The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, June 2010)

在一个县级成年人口中的一个7年的幽默感与死亡率的前瞻性研究医学精神病学杂志2010,6月

[10] Kerkkänen et al., “Sense of Humor, Physical Health, and Well-Being at Work” (Humor, March 2004)

幽默感身体健康幸福工作(《幽默》2004,3月)

[11] Rotton, “Trait Humor and Longevity” (Health Psychology, July 1992)

“幽默的特征和长寿”(健康心理学,1992,7月)

[12] Ando et al., “Psychotic Traits in Comedians” (The British Journal of Psychiatry, May 2014)

“喜剧演员精神病性状英国精神病学杂志2014,5月

  

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最后编辑于:2014-06-09 14:09
分类: 英语
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