20140707【探索与争鸣】译文受欢迎的先决条件

汪德均 (老顽童) 译坛新宠
186 3 2
发表于:2014-07-07 16:46 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

                                         

                             

         

 我的残疾人生——霍金自述》原发于201162我的QQ空间(顽童不老,顽童不老草青青),63 发于散文网(该网页显示阅读量32000多)。近日偶然发现已被多家网站擅自转载(用搜狗搜出的),甚至包括《中国社会科学网20140625 15:13(中国社会科学院网站,仅仅注明来源于散文网),(只有《语文学科网》与我联系过);擅自转载的还有纸质媒体《广东第二课堂》20131012页署名李嘉(译);《意林文汇》201305期。有的注明译者顽童不老草青青,多数无译者有的署名为他人而显示出的段落文字相同。方括号【···】里的导读文字为我所加,也被一些网站照搬。仅我所见,本文至少已被擅自转载不下于10次。是否还有改动标题或正文部分文字而无法搜到的,尚不得而知。下面所发文字按QQ空间首发原貌,未作任何改动。有兴趣的可自己搜搜,不知还有多少;其实译文相当青涩,实实足足蹒跚学步的水平;看看后面的原文,谁都可以发现毛病比比皆是。但是,这样的译文为何如此受欢迎而且还被据为己有?

类似的短文我还有十多篇,被擅自转载的只见到一篇,而且只有一次。


  原因就在于:作者是著名科学思想家,人们对他的经历感兴趣,文章传达的正能量有极大的激励作用;换句话说,该文的价值主要在于其思想内容 。译文传达出了其思想内容。人们读这样的文章,是吮吸思想的乳汁,获得心灵的营养。当然原作的语言也相当漂亮,朴素真挚、不事雕饰而情感饱满、逻辑性强。但这篇译文的文字恐怕并无多少吸引力。

结论:若自己选材,如果你不是译入语的语言大师,不能依靠译文语言的流畅、优美、机智、俏皮、幽默、冷峻,隽永等等来吸引读者的话,就一定要选名家名作,尤其是那种思想深刻、内容震撼人心,主人公具有传奇经历那一类作品。伟大的作家,首先是伟大的思想家,同时也是第一流的艺术表现大师。原作直击你的心灵,让你如痴如醉,欲罢不能,你若能传达原作的七成,其光辉就足够吸引读者了。若原作亮点不多而亮度也不高,你就是传达至九成,还会有多强的光

原作好,固然不能保证译文就好;但原作不怎么样,想要译文大受欢迎,则是缘木求鱼。

因此:若能选择,就一定要选名家名作,内容深刻,读起来刻骨铭心的,即使译文质量不太高,也可能容易受欢迎。

         

    

         斯蒂芬 霍金被誉为继爱因斯坦之后世界上最著名的科学思想家和最杰出的理论物理学家,被称为在世的最伟大的科学家,宇宙之王,而他年幼时即不幸身患不治之症,年轻时终于确诊:ALS症(肌萎缩性脊髓侧索硬化症俗称卢伽雷氏症),终身残疾,连说话都非常困难。 他是怎样面对这一残酷的现实的?】 

        

       我就是斯蒂芬·霍金。人们常常问我:你得了卢伽雷氏症,生活过得怎么样呀?我的回答总是:没有什么,我力图尽可能过得像一个正常人,不大想起自己的状况,也不抱怨因这个病而做不成许多事。

       还在孩提时代,我在球类活动方面就很笨拙;我的书写之糟糕,让我的老师沮丧绝望。在牛津大学读大三时,我的行动好像越来越笨拙,甚至没有明显的原因而跌倒过几次!  我的家庭医生就向我推荐一位专家以确诊我的病情。

        原来,我患上了一种无法治愈的运动神经细胞疾病!因为不知道病情会以多块的速度发展,我当时真的是六神无主!那时我刚刚开始研究广义相对论和宇宙学,医生建议我坚持下去。毕竟,如果无论如何都活不了多久,我总还可以做点有意义的事。但我并没有死!事实上,尽管我的未来笼罩着乌云,我还是比以前活得更有滋味。我的研究开始有了成果,并与一位女孩订了婚,她叫简·王尔德。订婚给了我生命的意义,也改变了我的人生:如果我们确定要结婚,我就必须找份工作。因此,我向剑桥大学申请做研究工作。剑桥大学聘请我为研究员,这使我大喜过望!几个月以后,我们就结婚了。

       研究员职位解决了我迫切的就业问题。选择了理论物理,真幸运!因为这是不多的几个适合我的领域之一 。幸运的是,我的科学声誉日渐上升,不幸的则是身体状况却每况愈下!1974年以前,吃饭、上床、起床我都还能够自理。照顾我,养育孩子们,简一个人就可以搞定。然而,情况越来越糟。1980年,我们雇了私人护士;护士每天上午和下午来工作一或二个小时。这种情况持续到1985年,我得了肺炎,必须接受气管切开手术。但在手术以前,我说话的声音就已经变得非常模糊,只有少数几个人才能听懂;而那次手术则完全剥夺了我说话的能力!美国加州的一位计算机专家听说我的情况后,发给我一套他自己编写的程序。这套程序可以由一个开关来控制,用头部或眼球的移动来操作。我有话想说时,就把那些话发到一个语音合成器。这个语音合成器发出的声音是目前为止我所听到的最好的语音,因为它有语调变化。唯一令人不舒服的是,它使我说出的是美国腔调的英语。 不过,该公司正在研制它的英国版。

     卢伽雷氏症几乎贯穿了我成年后的所有时光,但并没能阻碍我获得幸福的家庭生活与事业上的成功,当然应该归功于我的妻子,简,孩子们以及其他许许多多关心、帮助我的人。与通常那些

卢伽雷氏症患者相比,我一直是很幸运的,我的病情发展比他们的缓慢。我的经历表明,一个人即使是屡遭不幸,也不必灰心丧气,也可以有幸福、成功的人生!

  

  【原作  Stephen Hawking              翻译   顽童不老草青青】

   


                Disability - My Experience with ALS

                                                    by  Stephen Hawking 

 I am Stephen Hawking .  I am quite often asked: How do you feel about having ALS. The answer is, not a lot. I try to lead as normal a life as possible, and not think about my condition, or regret the things it prevents me from doing, which are not that many.

It was a great shock to me to discover that I had motor neurone disease. I had never been very well co-ordinated physically as a child. I was not good at ball games, and my handwriting was the despair of my teachers. Maybe for this reason, I didn't care much for sport or physical activities. But things seemed to change when I went to Oxford, at the age of 17. I took up coxing and rowing. I was not Boat Race standard, but I got by at the level of inter-College competition.

In my third year at Oxford, however, I noticed that I seemed to be getting more clumsy, and I fell over once or twice for no apparent reason. But it was not until I was at Cambridge, in the following year, that my father noticed, and took me to the family doctor. He referred me to a specialist, and shortly after my 21st birthday, I went into hospital for tests. I was in for two weeks, during which I had a wide variety of tests. They took a muscle sample from my arm, stuck electrodes into me, and injected some radio opaque fluid into my spine, and watched it going up and down with x-rays, as they tilted the bed. After all that, they didn't tell me what I had, except that it was not multiple sclerosis, and that I was an a-typical case. I gathered however, that they expected it to continue to get worse, and that there was nothing they could do, except give me vitamins. I could see that they didn't expect them to have much effect. I didn't feel like asking for more details, because they were obviously bad.

The realisation that I had an incurable disease, that was likely to kill me in a few years, was a bit of a shock. How could something like that happen to me. Why should I be cut off like this. However, while I had been in hospital, I had seen a boy I vaguely knew die of leukaemia, in the bed opposite me. It had not been a pretty sight. Clearly there were people who were worse off than me. At least my condition didn't make me feel sick. Whenever I feel inclined to be sorry for myself I remember that boy.

Not knowing what was going to happen to me, or how rapidly the disease would progress, I was at a loose end. The doctors told me to go back to Cambridge and carry on with the research I had just started in general relativity and cosmology. But I was not making much progress, because I didn't have much mathematical background. And, anyway, I might not live long enough to finish my PhD. I felt somewhat of a tragic character. I took to listening to Wagner, but reports in magazine articles that I drank heavily are an exaggeration. The trouble, is once one article said it, other articles copied it, because it made a good story. Anything that has appeared in print so many times, must be true.

My dreams at that time were rather disturbed. Before my condition had been diagnosed, I had been very bored with life. There had not seemed to be anything worth doing. But shortly after I came out of hospital, I dreamt that I was going to be executed. I suddenly realized that there were a lot of worthwhile things I could do if I were reprieved. Another dream that I had several times, was that I would sacrifice my life to save others. After all, if I were going to die anyway, it might as well do some good. But I didn't die. In fact, although there was a cloud hanging over my future, I found to my surprise, that I was enjoying life in the present more than before. I began to make progress with my research, and I got engaged to a girl called Jane Wilde, who I had met just about the time my condition was diagnosed. That engagement changed my life. It gave me something to live for. But it also meant that I had to get a job if we were to get married. I therefore applied for a research fellowship at Gonville and Caius (pronounced Keys) College, Cambridge. To my great surprise, I got a fellowship, and we got married a few months later.

The fellowship at Caius took care of my immediate employment problem. I was lucky to have chosen to work in theoretical physics, because that was one of the few areas in which my condition would not be a serious handicap. And I was fortunate that my scientific reputation increased, at the same time that my disability got worse. This meant that people were prepared to offer me a sequence of positions in which I only had to do research, without having to lecture.

We were also fortunate in housing. When we were married, Jane was still an undergraduate at Westfield College in London, so she had to go up to London during the week. This meant that we had to find somewhere I could manage on my own, and which was central, because I could not walk far. I asked the College if they could help, but was told by the then Bursar: it is College policy not to help Fellows with housing. We therefore put our name down to rent one of a group of new flats that were being built in the market place. (Years later, I discovered that those flats were actually owned by the College, but they didn't tell me that.) However, when we returned to Cambridge from a visit to America after the marriage, we found that the flats were not ready. As a great concession, the Bursar said we could have a room in a hostel for graduate students. He said "We normally charge 12 shillings and 6 pence a night for this room. However, as there will be two of you in the room, we will charge 25 shillings." We stayed there only three nights. Then we found a small house about 100 yards from my university department. It belonged to another College, who had let it to one of its fellows. However he had moved out to a house he had bought in the suburbs. He sub-let the house to us for the remaining three months left on his lease. During those three months, we found that another house in the same road was standing empty. A neighbour summoned the owner from Dorset, and told her that it was a scandal that her house should be empty, when young people were looking for accommodation. So she let the house to us. After we had lived there for a few years, we wanted to buy the house, and do it up. So we asked my College for a mortgage. However, the College did a survey, and decided it was not a good risk. In the end we got a mortgage from a building society, and my parents gave us the money to do it up. We lived there for another four years, but it became too difficult for me to manage the stairs. By this time, the College appreciated me rather more, and there was a different Bursar. They therefore offered us a ground floor flat in a house that they owned. This suited me very well, because it had large rooms and wide doors. It was sufficiently central that I could get to my University department, or the College, in my electric wheel chair. It was also nice for our three children, because it was surrounded by garden, which was looked after by the College gardeners.

Up to 1974, I was able to feed myself, and get in and out of bed. Jane managed to help me, and bring up the children, without outside help. However, things were getting more difficult, so we took to having one of my research students living with us. In return for free accommodation, and a lot of my attention, they helped me get up and go to bed. In 1980, we changed to a system of community and private nurses, who came in for an hour or two in the morning and evening. This lasted until I caught pneumonia in 1985. I had to have a tracheostomy operation. After this, I had to have 24 hour nursing care. This was made possible by grants from several foundations.

Before the operation, my speech had been getting more slurred, so that only a few people who knew me well, could understand me. But at least I could communicate. I wrote scientific papers by dictating to a secretary, and I gave seminars through an interpreter, who repeated my words more clearly. However, the tracheostomy operation removed my ability to speak altogether. For a time, the only way I could communicate was to spell out words letter by letter, by raising my eyebrows when someone pointed to the right letter on a spelling card. It is pretty difficult to carry on a conversation like that, let alone write a scientific paper. However, a computer expert in California, called Walt Woltosz, heard of my plight. He sent me a computer program he had written, called Equalizer. This allowed me to select words from a series of menus on the screen, by pressing a switch in my hand. The program could also be controlled by a switch, operated by head or eye movement. When I have built up what I want to say, I can send it to a speech synthesizer. At first, I just ran the Equalizer program on a desk top computer. However David Mason, of Cambridge Adaptive Communication, fitted a small portable computer and a speech synthesizer to my wheel chair. This system allowed me to communicate much better than I could before. I can manage up to 15 words a minute. I can either speak what I have written, or save it on disk. I can then print it out, or call it back, and speak it sentence by sentence. Using this system, I have written a book, and dozens of scientific papers. I have also given many scientific and popular talks. They have all been well received. I think that is in a large part due to the quality of the speech synthesizer, which is made by Speech Plus. One's voice is very important. If you have a slurred voice, people are likely to treat you as mentally deficient: Does he take sugar? This synthesizer is by far the best I have heard, because it varies the intonation, and doesn't speak like a Dalek. The only trouble is that it gives me an American accent. However, the company is working on a British version.

I have had motor neurone disease for practically all my adult life. Yet it has not prevented me from having a very attractive family, and being successful in my work. This is thanks to the help I have received from Jane, my children, and a large number of other people and organisations. I have been lucky, that my condition has progressed more slowly than is often the case. But it shows that one need not lose hope.

Stephen Hawking

擅自转载的网址链接举隅:

《广东第二课堂·中学版》2013年10期 李嘉(译)http://www.cqvip.com/QK/87365X/201310/47391349.html

中文科技期刊数据库http://www.cqvip.com/Read/Read.aspx?id=47391349

中国社会科学网20140625http://www.cssn.cn/xr/xr_zlmb/xr_sb/201406/t20140625_1227663.shtml

浙江工商大学校报的日志http://page.renren.com/601055177/note/901884096

出国留学网http://zw.liuxue86.com/z/679277.html

《意林文汇》2013年第5期-吾喜杂志网http://wuxizazhi.cnki.net/Search/YKWH201305012.html

先锋小学生网上作文http://www.wszw.com/article/detail.jsp?articleId=962397


http://www.360doc.com/content/12/1107/15/6801819_246399912.shtml


首发的三个网址链接:

http://user.qzone.qq.com/328183755/blog(20110602)

http://user.qzone.qq.com/343617784/2(20110602)

http://www.sanwen.net/subject/122971/


20140705【译艺探索】思考与比较(4)

20140703【译艺探讨】 思考与比较1

20140704【译艺探索】思考与比较2&3

20140704【英译中】陶乐熙奇遇记7·2(1508字)


20140703【英译中】陶乐熙奇遇记7·1(1361字)

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最后编辑于:2014-10-30 16:19
分类: 爱翻大厅
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