20140717【佳译品尝】 另类生活(曹明伦教授 译)

汪德均 (老顽童) 译坛新宠
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发表于:2014-07-17 08:06 [只看楼主] [划词开启]




第四届“《英语世界》杯”翻译大赛参考译文(曹明伦教授译文) 

2013-10-4 16:58| |来自: 《英语世界》博客
 
                                       另类生活(曹明伦 译)

                                       〔美〕克里夫顿·法迪曼1  


    另类生活是过去约30年间信息革命的产物,其中有另外一种极具竞争力、几乎在每个基本方面都与传统学校教育相悖、而且从青少年儿童两岁起就对其施加影响的教育体系。这个教育体系占用孩子们的时间与学校教育占用的基本相当,但对孩子们的影响却远远大于后者。


   该体系是个以电视为中心的链式结构,其结构成分还包含电影、广播、漫画书、流行音乐、体育运动,以及该结构自动衍生或刻意催生的生活方式(包括毒品文化、性放纵和有组织的反社会行为)。


   这种另类生活也是一种生活,它既非娱乐或消遣,也不是一种业余爱好。它提供其特有的行为准则、特有的课程科目、特有的伦理标准和文化价值观,以及特有的时尚和语言。它日复一日、年复一年地影响青少年儿童,对其进行教化、塑造和训练。而且它和传统教育极度对立,人们无法使文学或科学的价值观与电视商业广告的价值观并行不悖,也无法使莎士比亚或牛顿唤起的想象与“铜锣秀”2呈现的人生憧憬协调一致。这两套思维感知系统彼此针锋相对。


    这种情况前所未有,传统教育理念过去不曾受到过挑战。它以前被认为理所当然,因为可与之竞争的对手还未露端倪。但现在有了一种完备的另类生活,一种孩子们甘愿归依的生活。这种另类生活可以为他们提供英雄偶像、豪言壮语、行为方式以及诸如此类的内容,而所有这些都与课堂上传授的内容背道而驰。


   有史以来,孩子们首次需要成为双重文化公民——既要过传统生活,又要过另类生活。这样一种双重忠诚当然会造成我们所看到的混乱,这有什么可奇怪的呢?说深刻一点,我们所有的孩子都患有精神分裂症(而且我们的父母、老师和我们自己也有几分症状):一方面置身于书本、信念、以及历史文化所阐释的那个现实体系,另一方面又置身于电视节目、摇滚歌星、以及快感追求、享乐主义和消费至上所宣扬的那个更为生动且更易理解的现实体系。


   如果你执意追问那些优秀教师,到头来他们几乎总会承认:其面临的麻烦都源于另类生活的竞争,而他们并未受过应付这种竞争的训练。另类生活有一种妨碍老师执教的独特的心理影响——不管是教写作还是教其他基础课程的老师都受其妨碍。这种影响造成学生注意力下降,从而导致学习能力下降——这不是指学生天生的能力,而是指实际上受媒体影响的那部分能力。


   另类生活这个概念也许尚可争议,它当然不会被所有人接受。要求其他人对其加以关注(即便不是接受),原因在于这样一个事实:这种关注可超越现行的教育体制,并设法从那些正在动摇整个西方文明的变化中找到我们出问题的根本原因。


   
   注释:
  1、克里夫顿•法迪曼(又译费迪曼,1904~1999),美国作家、编辑、著名广播电视节目主持人,长期关注青少年儿童教育,代表作有《终生读书计划》(Lifetime
   Reading Plan, 1960),20世纪70年代曾为儿童刊物《蟋蟀书架》(Cricket’s
   Bookshelf)撰写系列书评,编有三卷本《世界儿童文学宝库》(The World Treasury of Children’s Literature, 
  1984)。《另类生活》节选自他的时评文章《通俗文化:课堂教学躲不开的竞争对手》(The Classroom’s Ubiquitous Rival: Pop 
  Culture),该文发表于1979年6月13日的《纽约时报》,后收入1982年出版的《短文读本》(第2版)。   


  2、由美国电视节目制作人查克•巴里斯(Chuck Barris, 1929~ 
  )创制并主持的一档业余选手特殊才艺比拼娱乐节目,评委通常由演艺界名流担任,表演失败者会被评委的铜锣声驱逐下场。该节目以幽默滑稽著称,20世纪70年代和80年代曾热播于包括美国国家广播公司在内的多家电视频道。

原文如下:

              The Alternate Life


  The alternate life is the consequence of the communications revolution of the last 30 years or so. There is another, highly competitive educational system, opposed in almost every essential way to traditional schooling, that operates on the child and youth from the age of 2. It takes up as much of his time as the school does, and it works on him with far greater effectiveness.
  
  That system is the linked structure of which television is the heart and which numbers among its constituents film, radio, comic books, pop music, sports—and the life styles (including the drug culture, permissive sex, and systematized antisocial conduct) which this structure either automatically or deliberately produces.
  
  This alternative life is a life; it is not a diversion, a hobby, an amusement. It offers its own disciplines, its own curriculum, its own ethical and cultural values, its own style and language. It works on children and youths every day, year after year, teaching them, forming them, conditioning them. And it is profoundly opposed to traditional education. There is no way of reconciling the values of literature or science with the values of the TV commercial. There is no way of reconciling the vision offered by Shakespeare or Newton with the vision of life offered by the “Gong Show”. Two systems of thought and feeling stand opposed to each other.
  
  This has never before been the case. The idea of education was never before opposed by a competitor. It was taken for granted because no alternative appeared on the horizon. But today there is a complete alternative life to which children submit themselves. This alternative life offers them heroes, slogans, images, forms of conduct, and content of a sort—and all run counter to the message given in the classroom.
  
  For the first time in history, the child is required to be a citizen of two cultures: the tradition and the alternate life. Is it any wonder that such a division of loyalties should result in the chaos we observe? In a deep sense, all our children (and, to a degree, our teachers, our parents, and ourselves) are schizophrenics. On the one hand is the reality-system expounded in a book, the idea, the cultural past; on the other hand is the far more vivid and comprehensible reality-system expounded by television, the rock star, the religion of instantaneous sensation, gratification and consumption.
  
  Good teachers, when you question them inexorably, almost always finally admit that their difficulties stem from the competition of the alternate life. And this competition they are not trained to meet. The alternate life has one special psychological effect that handicaps the teacher—any teacher, whether of writing or any other basic subject. That effect is a decline in the faculty of attention, and therefore a decline in the capacity to learn—not the innate capacity, but the capacity as it is conditioned by the media.
  
  This conception of the alternate life is probably debatable, and it certainly will not be accepted by everyone. Its claim to the interest of others, if not their agreement, lies in the fact that it goes beyond the present educational system and tries to locate the ultimate source of our troubles in the changes now agitating our entire Western culture.


(节选自The Short Prose Reader (second edition) by Gilbert H. Muller and Harvey S. Wiener, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1982。题目为本刊所加。)


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最后编辑于:2014-10-29 21:24
分类: 爱翻大厅
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