2014.07.22 【英译中】 Biology 生物学----- How to Define Life (2)

发表于:2014-07-22 18:13 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

Because life is so diverse, it seems reasonable that it cannot be defined in a straightforward manner. Instead, life is best defined by several basic characteristics shared by all organisms. 

正是由于生命体如此多样,故而理所应当地它没有很直接明确的定义。最佳的定义方式则是综合所有生命体的几个共同基本特征。

Like nonliving things, organisms are composed of chemical elements. Also, organisms obey the same laws of chemistry and physics that govern everything within the universe. 

与无生命物一样,生命体也是有化学元素组成的。同样地,它们也遵守同样的化学和物理规律,这些规律统治着一切宇宙万物。

The characteristics of life, however, will provide great insight into the unique nature of organisms and will help us distinguish living things from nonliving things.

然而生命体的特征为我们了解有机体的独特本质提供了广阔深入的视野,同时也有益于区分有生命物和无生命物。



Living Things Are Organized

生命体是有序构成的

The levels of organization depicted in Figure 1.2 begin with atoms, which are the basic units of matter. Atoms combine with other atoms of the same or different elements to form molecules.

 图1.2所描绘的组织层次从原子开始,这是物质的基本单位。原子和其他相同或不同元素的原子结合组成分子

           

The cell, which is composed of a variety of molecules working together, is the basic unit of structure and function of all living things. Some cells, such as unicellular paramecia, live independently. Other cells, for example, the colonial alga Volvox, cluster together in microscopic colonies.

细胞则是由各种共同运作的分子组成的,是一切有生命的物体结构和功能的基本单位。某些细胞,例如单细胞的草履虫以个体形式存活。而其他细胞,如集群的团藻,则是聚集成显微镜下的群落。

              

Many living things are multicellular, meaning they contain more than one cell. 

许多生物体都是多细胞的,意味着他们含有超过一个的细胞。

In multicellular organisms, similar cells combine to form a tissue; nerve tissue is a common tissue in animals. Tissues make up organs, as when various tissues combine to form the brain. Organs work together in systems; for example, the brain works with the spinal cord and a network of nerves to form the nervous system. Organ systems are joined together to form a complete living thing, or organism, such as an elephant.

在多细胞生物体内,相同的细胞组合形成组织;神经组织正是动物中的一种常见组织。许多组织组成器官;正如各种组织组成大脑一样。各类器官在不同系统中运作,例如,大脑则是和脊椎和神经网络组成神经系统。器官系统共同组成一个完成的生物体(或有机体),比如大象。

                   

回顾:6.14 Biology I----A View Of Life

           7.22 Biology II----How To Define Life (1)

 以上内容仅供英语翻译学习交流使用,无任何商业目的,请勿转载!

最后编辑于:2014-09-05 21:30
分类: 英语
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