2014.7.23 【英译中】 医学英语科普文 复杂的人体—永不枯竭的奇迹之源(2)

发表于:2014-07-23 18:08 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

The Human Complex—

A Never-failing Source of Wonderment

复杂的人体—永不枯竭的奇迹之源

A Swarm of Tiny Specialists

一群小专家


Studies of the cell—what it is, what it does and how it reproduces itself- have revealed it to be a fantastically complex world in itself. One of the major wonders of the cell is the disparity between its minuteness and the prodigiousness of its activity. Each cell is so tiny that millions of them may be found in a half-inch cube of human body tissue. Yet each comprises an almost unimaginably busy chemical laboratory with a highly ordered division of labor.

关于细胞是什么、做什么及其如何繁殖的研究显示出其是一个极其复杂的世界。细胞的一个十分重要的奇特之处在于它微小的体积和巨大的活动量之间的不对等。每个细胞非常小,成千上万个细胞可能也只能构成一个半英寸小方块大小的人体组织。然而,每个细胞有包含有一个令人难以想象的繁忙的化学实验室,高度有序,分工明确。


The cell has two main parts: a nucleus, containing the genetic material deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and a surrounding semifluid cytoplasm. Bounding the cytoplasm is the cell membrane, which keeps the cell contents in and undesirable material out, yet permits passage of both proper nutrients and wastes. The nucleus—cell headquarters—governs the major activities of the cytoplasm; its finest hour, however, comes at reproduction time, when chromosomes containing DNA split. It is in the cytoplasm that the cell’s day-to-day business is carried on. 

细胞有两个主要部分:包含有遗传物质DNA的细胞核和周围半流质的细胞质。包围细胞质的是细胞膜,它维持了细胞内容物在内,不需要的物质在外的状态,同时又允许适当的营养物质和废物进出。细胞核是细胞的司令部,掌管细胞质的主要活动;但它最光荣的时刻是细胞分裂时,这时包含DNA的染色体相互分离。日复一日,细胞的工作都在细胞质中进行。

Each of its various components, or organelles, is a specialist of surpassing skill. One type breaks down the food given entry by the cell membrane and converts it into energy. Another provides the site for the synthesis of protein-along with reproduction, a major function of most cells. Another packages the manufactured protein for transport wherever needed in the body.

各类细胞组成或细胞器,每一个都是具备卓越技术的专家。一类可以分解通过细胞膜摄入的食物,并将其转化为能量。另一类在细胞复制时提供蛋白质合成的场所,前者是大多数细胞的主要工作。另一类将加工好的蛋白质包装以便运送到人体所需的各个地方。


To operate efficiently, the cell thus requires specific help from the body as a whole: food to provide raw material for the release of energy, oxygen to help break down the food, water to transport inorganic substances like calcium and sodium. Once its needs are satisfied, the cell itself provides the intricate mechanism for maintaining the balance essential to keep it in kilter—in short, to keep the body alive and healthy.

为了更高效地工作,细胞需要机体以整体的形式提供特定的帮助:食物作为释放能量的原材料;氧气帮助食物的分解;水转运像钙和钠这样的无机物。细胞的需要一旦得到满足,它便会通过复杂的机制使其保持平衡状态,这对细胞保持正常从而保持人体的活力和健康尤为重要。


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