2014.07.24 【英译中】 Biology 生物学----- How to Define Life (3)

发表于:2014-07-24 11:13 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

Chapter I A View of Life

1.1 How to Define Life

Living Things Are Organized

The levels of biological organization extend beyond the individual organism. All the members of one species in a particular area belong to a population. A nearby forest may have a population of gray squirrels and a population of white oaks, for example. The populations of various animals and plants in the forest make up a community. The community of populations interacts with the physical environment and forms an ecosystem. Finally, all the Earth's ecosystems make up the biosphere.

生物学组织层次延伸到个体生物之外。特定区域内某一物种的所有种类归属于一个种群。比如说,附近的森林中就可能有一群灰松鼠和一片白栎木。这片森林中各类动植物种群组成了一个群落。群落中各种群与物质环境交互作用形成生态系统。最终,地球上所有生态系统构成了生物圈。

      

Emergent Properties

新质

Each level of biological organization builds upon the previous level, and is more complex. Moving up the hierarchy, each level acquires new emergent properties that are determined by the interactions between the individual parts.

生物学组织的每一层次都基于前一层次,但较之较复杂。沿结构层次来看,每一层都获得其中各个部分交互作用而所产生的新的突变性质,即新质。

When cells are broken down into bits of membrane and liquids, these parts themselves cannot carry out the business of living. For example, you can take apart a lump of coal, rearrange the pieces in any order, and still have a lump of coal with the same function as the original one. But,   if you slice apart a living plant and rearrange the pieces, the plant is no longer functional as a complete plant, because it depends on the exact order of those pieces.

当细胞分解成膜碎片和液体时,各部分则不能再运行生物体的功能。例如,分离一块煤,然后无论怎样重组,它始终还是那块煤,并且具备与原煤块相同的功能。但是,如果分离的是一株活的植物,然后再重组,它便不再具备完整植物的功能,这是由于其功能取决于其内部特定的排列规律。

In they living world, the whole is indeed more than the sum of its parts. The emergent properties created by interactions between levels of biological organization are new, unique characteristics. These properties are governed by the law of chemistry and physics.

在生命世界,个体数量其实是多于其部分的。在化学和物理规律的影响下,各级生物层次之间交互作用产生全新而独特的特性,即新质。


回顾:2014.6.14 【英译中】 Biology 生物学---Chapter I.  A View of Life

       2014.07.22【英译中】Biology 生物学--- 1.1 How to define life(1)

       2014.07.22 【英译中】 Biology 生物学---1.1How to Define Life (2)

 以上内容仅供英语翻译学习交流使用,无任何商业目的,请勿转载!

最后编辑于:2014-09-05 21:31
分类: 英语
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