2014.7.25【英译中】记忆依赖于星形胶质细胞(317词)

碎了翅膀 (donna) 路人甲
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发表于:2014-08-03 15:39 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

记忆依赖于星形胶质细胞

When you're expecting something -- like the meal you've ordered at a restaurant -- or when something captures your interest, unique electrical rhythms sweep through your brain. These waves are called gamma oscillations(振动) and they reflect a symphony of cells -- both excitatory and inhibitory(禁止的) -- playing together in an orchestrated way. Though their role has been debated, gamma waves have been associated with higher-level brain function, and disturbances in the patterns have been tied to schizophrenia(精神分裂症), Alzheimer's disease, autism, epilepsy(癫痫) and other disorders.

 当你正在期待什么东西的时候,比如刚在餐馆里点的饭菜,或者当什么东西吸引了你的兴趣的时候,扫描你的脑电图会发现独特的波形。这些波被称作伽玛波,他们是细胞交响乐的反射,兴奋和抑制,就像被编曲了交织在一起。他们的角色还是有些争议的,伽玛波被和脑的高水平的功能联系在一起,图形的异常还和神经分裂症、老年痴呆、自闭症、癫痫等精神失调有关。

Now, new research from the Salk Institute shows that little known supportive cells in the brain known as astrocytes may in fact be major players that control these waves.

 现在,来自索尔克研究所的新发现显示大脑中很少被人知晓的星型胶质细胞事实上在控制伽玛波时起到重要作用。

In a study published July 28 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Salk researchers report a new, unexpected strategy to turn down gamma oscillations by disabling not neurons but astrocytes. In the process, the team showed that astrocytes, and the gamma oscillations they help shape, are critical for some forms of memory.

 7月28日发表的国家科学研究所的会议录的一项研究中,索尔克研究院报道了一种新的意想不到的模式来降低伽玛波,就是通过禁止星型胶质细胞,而不是禁止神经细胞。在过程中,研究小组显示了有助于形成伽玛波的是星型胶质细胞,它们对某些记忆的形成是至关重要的。

"This is what could be called a smoking gun," says co-author Terrence Sejnowski, head of the Computational Neurobiology Laboratory at the Salk Institute for Biological Sciences and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator. "There are hundreds of papers linking gamma oscillations with attention and memory, but they are all correlational. This is the first time we have been able to do a causal experiment, where we selectively block gamma oscillations and show that it has a highly specific impact on how the brain interacts with the world."

 “这可以被称作是一个确凿的证据,”合著者泰伦斯•谢诺沃斯基说,他是在研究生物科学的索尔克学会的计算机神精生物实验室的领导人,还是霍华德休斯敦医学机构的研究员。“数百的文献都把伽马波河注意以及记忆联系在一起,而他们是相关的。这是我们第一次因果实验,我们有选择性地阻止了伽马波,这对揭示大脑和世界是如何相互作用具有很独特的影响。”

A collaboration among the labs of Salk professors Sejnowski, Inder Verma and Stephen Heinemann found that activity in the form of calcium signaling in astrocytes immediately preceded gamma oscillations in the brains of mice. This suggested that astrocytes, which use many of the same chemical signals as neurons, could be influencing these oscillations.

索尔克实验室的专家Sejnowski, Inder Verma 和Stephen Heinemann协作发现星型胶质细胞的钙信号激活能够在小鼠脑中立即引起伽马波。这显示了,和神经细胞 共用很多相同化学信号的星型胶质细胞,能够影响这些波。

分类: 英语
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