2014.7.25【英译中】婴儿通过气味感受母亲的恐惧(372词)

碎了翅膀 (donna) 路人甲
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发表于:2014-08-03 16:15 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

婴儿通过气味感受母亲的恐惧

Babies can learn what to fear in the first days of life just by smelling the odor(气味) of their distressed mothers, new research suggests. And not just "natural" fears: If a mother experienced something before pregnancy that made her fear something specific, her baby will quickly learn to fear it too -- through the odor she gives off when she feels fear. In the first direct observation of this kind of fear transmission, a team of University of Michigan Medical School and New York University studied mother rats who had learned to fear the smell of peppermint -- and showed how they "taught" this fear to their babies in their first days of life through their alarm odor released during distress.

 一项新的研究发现,婴儿在他们刚出生几天就能通过闻气味感觉到穿着衣服的妈妈们的恐惧.而且还不仅仅是自然的恐惧,如果这个妈妈在怀孕前就对某种特定的事物有恐惧感,通过妈妈在感到恐惧时发出的气味,他们的孩子很快就能感知到并也会对这类事物产生恐惧.对这种恐惧的直接观察是密歇根大学医学院和纽约大学的研究小组通过研究感受到对薄荷味道的恐惧的母鼠,且展示了它们是怎么把这种恐惧通过压力下释放预警气味来教会它们刚出世几天的宝宝的.

In a new paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the team reports how they pinpointed the specific area of the brain where this fear transmission takes root in the earliest days of life.

 在一些美国国家科学院院刊上的文章中,这个小组报道他们是如何标记大脑中的特殊区域的.这些特殊区域是上文提到的那类恐惧在生命的最早几天扎根的地方.

Their findings in animals may help explain a phenomenon that has puzzled mental health experts for generations: how a mother's traumatic experience can affect her children in profound ways, even when it happened long before they were born.

 他们在动物身上的发现可能有助于解释困惑了几代心理健康专家的一个现象:妈妈的惨痛经验怎么会给他们的孩子带来那么深远的影响,及时这些经历发生在他们的孩子出生前很久.

The researchers also hope their work will lead to better understanding of why not all children of traumatized mothers, or of mothers with major phobias恐怖症, other anxiety disorders or major depression, experience the same effects.

 研究者们还希望他们的工作能够有助于理解为什么不是所有的孩子都会受到妈妈们一样的影响.这些妈妈们有的受过心理创伤,或是有的有严重的恐怖症,有的有焦虑症有的有重度抑郁症.

"During the early days of an infant rat's life, they are immune to learning information about environmental dangers. But if their mother is the source of threat information, we have shown they can learn from her and produce lasting memories," says Jacek Debiec, M.D., Ph.D., the U-M psychiatrist and neuroscientist who led the research.

 “在鼠宝宝的早期生命里,它们不能学习环境危险方面的信息.但是如果他们的妈妈是恐怖信息的源头,就像我们呈现的那样,他们会学习妈妈并产生持久地记忆.”带领这项研究的医学博士,哲学博士,并且是健康护理神经病学家和神经系统科学家的Jacek Debiec说.

"Our research demonstrates that infants can learn from maternal expression of fear, very early in life," he adds. "Before they can even make their own experiences, they basically acquire their mothers' experiences. Most importantly, these maternally-transmitted memories are long-lived, whereas other types of infant learning, if not repeated, rapidly perish."

我们的研究论证了婴儿在他们的早期生命里可以通过它们母亲对恐惧的表达而感知.”在它们能有自己的体验之前,他们基本都是获得它们妈妈的经验.最重要的是,这些母亲传送的记忆是长久存在的,而其他形式的学习如果不经过重复则可能很快的就被遗忘.

分类: 英语
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