2014.08.03【英译中】 Biology 生物学----- How to Define Life (5)

发表于:2014-08-03 19:57 [只看楼主] [划词开启]


Chapter I A View of Life

1.1 How to Define Life


Living Things Respond

生物可以作出回应

 

    Living things interact with the environment as well as with other living things. Even unicellular organisms can respond to their environment. In some, the beating of microscopic hairs or, in others, the snapping of whiplike tails moves them toward or away from light or chemicals. Multicellular organisms can manage more complex responses. A vulture can detect a carcass a kilometer away and soar toward dinner. A monarch butterfly can sense the approach of fall and begin its flight south where resources are still abundant.

生物间以及生物与自然环境之间交互作用。即使是单细胞生物也可以回应环境变化。通过微细纤毛的摆动,或者鞭子样鞭毛的抽动,单细胞生物得以趋向或套利光或化学物质。多细胞生物可以做出更为复杂的应答。秃鹫可以从一千里以外发现腐尸,然后猛冲向这一大餐。帝王蝶能感受到秋天的迫近,然后启程南飞,到资源仍然丰富的地方。

 

             

     

The ability to respond often results in movement: the leaves of a land plant turn toward the sun, and animals dart toward safety. Appropriate responses help ensure survival of the organism and allow it to carry on its daily activities. All together, these activities are termed the behavior of the organism. Organisms display a variety of behaviors as they maintain homeostasis and search and compete for energy, nutrients, shelter, and mates. Many organisms display complex communication, hunting, and defense behaviors.

回应能力导致行动:陆生植物的叶子趋向太阳,动物趋向安全处。适当的回应有助于确保有机体得以生存,同时使之日常活动得以进行。而这些活动则被命名为生物行为。在保持稳态以及搜寻和竞争能量、营养、庇护所和配偶时,有机体表现出各种各样的行为。许多生物都可以表现出复杂的交流、捕猎及防御行为。

 

Living Things Reproduce and Develop

生物能够繁殖与发育

                    

Life comes only from life. Every type of living thing can reproduce, or make another organism like itself (Fig. 1.4). Bacteria, protists, and other unicellular organisms simply split in two. In most multicellular organisms, the reproductive process begins with the pairing of a sperm from one partner and an egg from the other partner. The union of sperm and egg, followed by many cell divisions, results in an immature stage, which grows and develops through various stages to become the adult.

生命只能来源于生命。每一种生命体都可以繁殖或创造与自身类似的有机体。(图1.4)。细菌、原生生物及其他单细胞生物简单地一分为二。对于大多数多细胞生物,繁殖过程开始于父母一方的精子和另一方的卵子配对融合。精子与卵子结合后,多步细胞分裂发生直至幼期,继而经历各个阶段成长发育为成体。

             

An embryo develops into a humpback whale or a purple iris because of a blueprint inherited from its parents. The instructions, or blueprint, for an organism's metabolism and organization are encoded in genes. The genes, which contain specific information for how the organism is to be orderer are made of long molecules of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). DNA has a shape resembling a spiral staircase with millions of steps. Housed within this spiral staircase is the genetic code that is shared by all living things.          


一个胚胎究竟会发育为座头鲸还是紫雾鸢尾花取决于它遗传自亲代的基因。这些控制生物新陈代谢及其组织结构的指令,或者说蓝图,编码于基因中。基因由长串DNA分子组成,存储着关于有机体秩序的信息。DNA形似无数阶梯组成的螺旋梯,所有生物共用的基因密码隐藏其中。

字数统计:540(汉字)







回顾:2014.6.14 【英译中】 Biology 生物学---Chapter I.  A View of Life

         2014.07.22【英译中】Biology 生物学--- 1.1 How to define life(1)

         2014.07.22 【英译中】 Biology 生物学---1.1How to Define Life (2)

         2014.07.24 【英译中】 Biology 生物学---1.1How to Define Life (3)

            2014.08.02【英译中】 Biology 生物学----- How to Define Life (4)

 以上内容仅供英语翻译学习交流使用,无任何商业目的,请勿转载!




最后编辑于:2014-10-29 19:07
分类: 英语
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