2014.08.04【英译中】 Biology 生物学----- How to Define Life (6)

发表于:2014-08-04 17:25 [只看楼主] [划词开启]


Chapter I A View of Life

1.1 How to Define Life


Living Things Respond

生物回应


When living things reproduce, their genes are passed on to the next generation. Random combinations of sperm and egg, each of which contains a unique collection of genes, ensure that the new individual has new and different characteristics. The DNA of organisms, over time, also undergoes mutations (changes) that may be passed on to the next generation. These events help to create a staggering diversity of life, even within a group of otherwise identical organisms. Sometimes, organisms inherit characteristics that allow them to be more suited to their way of life.

生物通过繁殖,使得基因得以延续到下一代。精子和卵子分别含有一套独特的基因,二者随机结合确保新个体拥有全新而不同的特征。随着时间推移,有机体的DNA也会发生突变(变异),这种突变也会传递到下一代。以上事件有助于创造丰富多样的生命,即使是在完全相同的生物种群之间。有时,生物遗传到的特征使之更适应其生活方式。

 

Living Things Have Adaptations

生物具备适应性

 

Adaptations [L.ad, toward, and aptus, suitable] are modifications that make organisms better able to function in a particular environment. For example, penguins are adapted to an aquatic existence in the Antarctic. An extra layer of downy feathers is covered by short, thick feathers that form a waterproof coat. Layers of blubber also keep the birds warm in cold water. Most birds have forelimbs proportioned for flying, but penguins have stubby flattened wings suitable for swimming. Their feet and tails serve as rubbers in the water, but the flat feet also allow them to walk on land. Rockhopper penguins have a bill adapted to eating small shellfish.

 适应性是生物更好地在特定环境中活动所作的变动。比如,企鹅就适应南极的水生生活。额外的一层柔软的羽毛,短小,厚密,形成一件防水外套。多层鲸脂使它们在冰水中得以保温。大多数鸟类都有与飞行能力相称的前翼,而企鹅的前翼粗短光秃,适合游泳。在水里,它们的足和尾充当橡胶(皮桨);而在陆地上,扁平的双足亦使之可以行走。而跳岩企鹅(冠企鹅)的喙适合捕食小型贝类。

Penguins also have many behavioral adaptations to living in the Antarctic. Penguins often slide on their bellies across the snow in order to conserve energy when moving quickly. Their eggs----one or at most two---- are carried on the feet, where they are protected by a pouch of skin. This also allows the birds to huddle together for warmth while standing erect and incubating eggs.

企鹅对于南极生活也有许多适应性的行为活动。为了保存体力,企鹅通常会在快速滑行时用腹部贴地滑过雪地。它们的蛋(一个或最多两个)会放在脚上携带,并且用那里袋状的皮肤保护住。这样的方式也使它们可以笔直站着孵蛋,从而能挤在一起取暖。

        

From penguins to fire ants, life on Earth is very diverse because over long periods of time, organisms respon to ever-changing environments by developing new adapatations. Evolution [L. evolutio, an unrolling] includes the way in which populations of organisms change over the course of many generations to become more suited to their environments. Evolution constantly reshapes the species, providing a way for organisms to persist, despite a changing environment.

由于漫长时间的推移,生物对持续变化的环境不断回应,演化出新的适应性,使得从企鹅到红火蚁,地球生物呈现广泛的多样性。演化,包括生物种群随世代传递而发生变化,从而更适应于其外界环境。演化不断地重塑物种,使得无论外界环境如何变化,生物都得以延续。


 

FIGURE I .4  Rockhopper penguins with their offspring.

Rockhopper penguins, which are named for their skill in leaping from rock to rock, produce one or two offspring at a time. Both male and female have a brood patch, a feather-free area of skin containing many blood vessels, which keeps the egg(s) warm when either parent sits on the nest.

1.4  跳岩企鹅和它们的孩子

跳岩企鹅,因其能够在岩石间跳跃而命名,一胎产一或两个后代。雌性和雄性都有抱卵点,即一片富含血管的光秃区域,父母任一方坐在巢里,都可以使蛋保持恒温

字数统计:644(汉字)







回顾:2014.6.14 【英译中】 Biology 生物学---Chapter I.  A View of Life

         2014.07.22【英译中】Biology 生物学--- 1.1 How to define life(1)

         2014.07.22 【英译中】 Biology 生物学---1.1How to Define Life (2)

         2014.07.24 【英译中】 Biology 生物学---1.1How to Define Life (3)

         2014.08.02【英译中】 Biology 生物学----- How to Define Life (4)

         2014.08.03【英译中】 Biology 生物学----- How to Define Life (5)

 以上内容仅供英语翻译学习交流使用,无任何商业目的,请勿转载!

最后编辑于:2014-09-05 21:34
分类: 英语
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