2014.09.29【英译中】冰桶挑战背后

潘琪江苏1995 (kitty是只猫) 初涉译坛
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发表于:2014-09-29 22:57 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), often referred to as "Lou Gehrig's Disease," is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects nerve cells in the brain and the spinal cord. The progressive degeneration of the motor neurons in ALS eventually leads to their death. When the motor neurons die, the ability of the brain to initiate and control muscle movement is lost. With voluntary muscle action progressively affected, patients in the later stages of the disease may become totally paralyzed.

肌萎缩侧索硬化(ALS),也就是通常人们所说的葛雷克氏症,是一种会对脑部神经细胞和脊髓造成一定影响的渐变神经衰弱疾病。ALS中说的运动神经的逐步退化最终会导致神经的死亡。运动神经的死亡意味着大脑引导和控制肌肉运动功能的丧失。随着横纹肌运动功能的逐步减弱,病人在后期会完全瘫痪。

Ice Bucket Challenge A-myo-trophic comes from the Greek language. "A" means no or negative. "Myo" refers to muscle, and "Trophic" means nourishment–"No muscle nourishment." When a muscle has no nourishment, it "atrophies" or wastes away. "Lateral" identifies the areas in a person's spinal cord where portions of the nerve cells that signal and control the muscles are located. As this area degenerates it leads to scarring or hardening ("sclerosis") in the region.

冰桶挑战,“A-myo-trophic”来自希腊语。“A”指的是零值或负值,“Myo”指的是肌肉,“Trophic” 则是营养。连起来便是“缺乏肌肉营养”。试想,如果肌肉缺少营养,肌肉便会萎缩或者是过度消瘦。“侧部”指的是人体脊髓内部给肌肉传递信号并且控制肌肉部位的神经元所在区域。这个部位的退化会导致结疤和硬化。

As motor neurons degenerate, they can no longer send impulses to the muscle fibers that normally result in muscle movement. Early symptoms of ALS often include increasing muscle weakness, especially involving the arms and legs, speech, swallowing or breathing. When muscles no longer receive the messages from the motor neurons that they require to function, the muscles begin to atrophy (become smaller). Limbs begin to look "thinner" as muscle tissue atrophies.

当运动肌肉退化,它们便再也无法向肌肉纤维传送刺激、从而引起肌肉运动了。ALS的早期症状通常表现为程度不断加深的肌无力,尤其体现在说话、吞咽和呼吸时的胳膊和腿部反应。当肌肉不再收到来自肌肉神经的运动信号,肌肉便会开始慢慢萎缩(即变得越来越小)。肌肉瘫痪的外部表现就是四肢开始变得瘦弱。

What Types of Nerves Make Your Body Work Properly?

什么样的神经元会让你的身体协调地运行?

The body has many kinds of nerves. There are those involved in the process of thinking, memory, and of detecting sensations (such as hot/cold, sharp/dull), and others for vision, hearing, and other bodily functions. The nerves that are affected when you have ALS are the motor neurons that provide voluntary movements and muscle power. Examples of voluntary movements are your making the effort to reach for the phone or step off a curb; these actions are controlled by the muscles in the arms and legs.

人体内有许许多多种不同的神经元。比如说有参加思考、记忆、捕捉感觉(例如冷热、锋钝)的神经元,另有视力、听觉神经元和其他具有其他身体机能的神经元。患有ALS之后,提供随意运动和体力的运动神经元会受到影响。随意运动就是比如当你试图去拿起话筒或者停下脚步;这些动作都是由四肢的肌肉控制的。

The heart and the digestive system are also made of muscle but a different kind, and their movements are not under voluntary control. When your heart beats or a meal is digested, it all happens automatically. Therefore, the heart and digestive system are not involved in ALS. Breathing also may seem to be involuntary. Remember, though, while you cannot stop your heart, you can hold your breath - so be aware that ALS may eventually have an impact on breathing.

心脏和消化系统也是由肌肉构成的,不过是不同种类的肌肉,而且它们的运动不受随意控制。你心脏跳动或者消化饭食的时候,相应的肌肉运动便自动产生了。因此,患有ALS的病人心脏和消化系统并不会受到影响。呼吸看上去似乎也不是随意运动。不过,需要记住的是,你不能停止心脏跳动,但是你可以屏住呼吸。所以,需要警惕的是,ALS最终可能会影响呼吸系统。

Although the cause of ALS is not completely understood, the recent years have brought a wealth of new scientific understanding regarding the physiology of this disease.

尽管人们还没有完全弄清楚ALS的诱因,最近几年,科学家提出了对于这种疾病的心理机理的大量科学的新理解。

While there is not a cure or treatment today that halts or reverses ALS, there is one FDA approved drug, riluzole, that modestly slows the progression of ALS as well as several other drugs in clinical trials that hold promise.

尽管至今还没有抵御ALS的治疗方法,经过食品药物管理局批准的药物利鲁唑,以及其他临床试验过的有功效的药品可以轻微减缓ALS的继续退化。

Importantly, there are significant devices and therapies that can manage the symptoms of ALS that help people maintain as much independence as possible target and prolong survival. It is important to remember that ALS is a quite variable disease; no two people will have the same journey or experiences.  There are medically documented cases of people in whom ALS ‘burns out,’ stops progressing or progresses at a very slow rate. No matter what your individual course or situation may be, The ALS Association and your medical team are here to help.

需要强调的是,能够缓解ALS的症状、并且帮助病人更好地独立生活、延长寿命有很多高端的设备和治疗方法。务必记住,ALS是一种多样化的疾病,不会有两个有着相同患病体验的人。医学文件记录,曾有患者?不过,无论你的患病经历有多煎熬,ALS协会和你的医药团队随时为你提供帮助。

分类: 英语

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