2014.11.01【英译中】美国小学与其早期制造业的发展

咯口 (61儿童节) 译心译意
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发表于:2014-11-01 17:11 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

Unit one 

Elementary Schools in early America(早期美国的小学)

 What accounts for the great outburst of major inventions in early America -- breakthroughs such as the telegraph, the steamboat and the weaving machine?

 是什么使早期美国主要发明(例如电报、汽船和织布机等的突破)大爆发? 

Among the many shaping factors, I would single out the country's excellent elementary schools; a labor force that welcomed the new technology; the practice of giving premiums to inventors; and above all the American genius for nonverbal, "spatial" thinking about things technological. 

在许多原因中,我偏向于指出其完美的小学教育、一个能接受新兴科技的劳动者、给发明人上保的一个尝试,尤其是美国非语言的天才,对科技事物立体的想象。

 Why mention the elementary schools? Because thanks to these schools our early mechanics, especially in the New England and Middle Atlantic states, were generally literate and at home in arithmetic and in some aspects of geometry and trigonometry. 

为什么要提到小学?因为多亏了这些学校我们的早期力学,特别是在新英格兰和中部濒大西洋中部各州,教育普及,且熟悉算数和几何学三角函数的某些方面。 

Acute foreign observers related american adaptiveness and inventiveness to this educational advantage. As a member of a British commission visiting here in 1853 reported, "With a mind prepared by thorough school discipline, the American boy develops rapidly into the skilled workman."

 外国观察者敏锐的将美国的适应性和创造力与这种教育优势联系到一起。就如以为英国委员会的成员1853年到访这儿时的报道所称:“通过完备的校规的精心培养,美国男孩迅速成长为有经验的工作人员。”

 A further stimulus to invention came from the "premium" system, which preceded our patent system and for years ran parallel with it. This approach, originated abroad, offered inventors medals, cash prizes and other incentives. 

对发明更进一步的促进来源于保险系统、并且领先于我们的专利系统并长期与其并驾齐驱。这种方法源自于海外提供的发明奖章、现金奖励与其它形式的奖励。

 In the United States, multitudes of premiums for new devices were awarded at country fairs and at the industrial fairs in major cities. Americans flocked to these fairs to admire the new machines and thus to renew their faith in the beneficence of technological advance.

 在美国,众多新设备在各大城市的集市和工业博览会受到奖赏。美国人涌入这些集市来赞赏这些新的机器同时因此保持其对在技术进步所做的信心。

 Given this optimistic approach to technological innovation, the American worker took readily to that special kind of nonverbal thinking required in mechanical technology. As Eugene Ferguson has pointed out, "A technologist thinks about objects that cannot be reduced to unambiguous verbal descriptions; they are dealt with in his mind by a visual, nonverbal process. The designer and the inventor are able to assemble and manipulate in their minds devices that as yet do not exist." 

接收到技术革新的乐观方法、美国工人很容易就接受了特殊类型的非语言的机制工艺学的必须要求。正如尤金弗格森所指出的“一名技术专家考虑不可以被简化为清楚明白的口头描述的对象。”他们通过可视的、非语言的项目处理这些。设计师和发明家可以在他们的内心装配和操纵他们心里至今仍不存在的的设备。

 This nonverbal "spatial" thinking can be just as creative as painting and writing. robert fulton once wrote, "The mechanic should sit down among levers, screws, wedges, wheels, etc. , like a poet among the letters of the alphabet, considering them as an exhibition of his thoughts, in which a new arrangement transmits a new idea." 

非语言的空间设想能同画画和写作一样进行创造。罗伯特富尔顿曾经写道:技工应当置身于杠杆,螺丝,楔子和齿轮等中,就像一个诗人置身于阿拉伯字母中,想象他们是他思想的展示,其中一个新的排列组合传递一种新的想法。 

When all these shaping forces -- schools, open attitudes, the premium system, a genius for spatial thinking -- interacted with one another on the rich U.S. mainland, they produced that american characteristic, emulation. Today that word implies mere imitation. But in earlier times it meant a friendly but competitive striving for fame and excellence.

 当所有这些塑造力量—学校、开放的思想、奖金制度,空间想象的天赋—加上与其它美国本土富人的相互作用,他们创造了美国特色、仿真。今天这个词汇意味着纯粹的仿制。但是在早些时候,它意味着一个为了名誉和成功的友好而竞争性的奋斗。

分类: 英语
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