【早读社】恩格斯演讲(2/3)14.09.26

tyltyllove (璐璐巴斯)
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发表于:2014-09-26 07:17 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

Just as Darwin discovered the law of development of organic nature, so Marx discovered the law of development of human history: the simple fact, hitherto concealed by an overgrowth of ideology, that mankind must first of all eat, drink, have shelter and clothing, before it can pursue politics, science, art, religion, etc., that therefore the production of the immediate material means of subsistence and consequently the degree of economic development attained by a given people or during a given epoch form the foundation upon which the state institutions, the legal conceptions, art, and even the ideas on religion, of the people concerned have been evolved, and in the light of which they must, therefore, be explained, instead of vice versa, as had hitherto been the case.
正如达尔文发现生物界的发展规模一样,马克思发现了人类历史的发展规律,即历来为各种思想体系所重重掩盖着的一个简单事实:人们首先必须有了衣食住行,然后才能从事政治、科学、艺术、宗教等活动,所以,直接的物质的生产资料的生产,因而一个民族和一个时代的经济发展阶段,便构成为基础,人们的国家制度、法律规定、艺术乃至宗教观念便是在这个基础上发展起来的,因此也就必须从这个基础出发来加以说明,而不是像过去那样本末倒置。

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