《新概念英语》(第四册)第36课

totorosuki (桜)
【A+研究所】文娱部长&荣誉会员☆网校制霸
高级粉丝
96 14 1
发表于:2014-11-30 00:10 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

《新概念英语》第四册第36课 The cost of government 政府的开支 


【英音课文朗读】 
 
点击下载音频>> 

【美音课文朗读】 
 
点击下载音频>> 

【课文】 
First listen and then answer the following question. 
听录音,然后回答以下问题。 
What is the most important factor, both in government or business, for keeping running costs low? 

If a nation is essentially disunited, it is left to the government to hold it together. This increases the expense of government, and reduces correspondingly the amount of economic resources that could be used for developing the country. And it should not be forgotten how small those resources are in a poor and backward country. Where the cost of government is high, resources for development are correspondingly low. 
This may be illustrated by comparing the position of a nation with that of a private business enterprise. An enterprise has to incur certain costs and expenses in order to stay in business. For our purposes, we are concerned only with one kind of cost -- the cost of managing and administering the business. Such administrative overheads in a business are analogous to the cost of government in a nation. The administrative overheads of a business are low to the extent that everyone working in the business can be trusted to behave in a way that best promotes the interests of the firm. If they can each be trusted to take such responsibilities. and to exercise such initiative as falls within their sphere, then administrative overheads will be low. It will be low because it will be necessary to have only one man looking after each job, without having another man to check upon what he is doing, keep him in line, and report on him to someone else. But if no one can be trusted to act in a loyal and responsible manner towards his job, then the business will require armies of administrators, checkers, and foremen and administrative overheads will rise correspondingly. As administrative overheads rise, so the earnings of the business after meeting he expense of administration, will fall; and the business will have less money to distribute as dividends or invest directly in its future progress and development. 
It is precisely the same with a nation. To the extent that the people can be relied upon to behave in a loyal and responsible manner, the government does not require armies of police and civil servants tokeep them in order. But if a nation is disunited, the government cannot be sure that the actions of the people will be in the interests of the nation; and it will have to watch, check, and control the people accordingly. A disunited nation therefore has to incur unduly high costs of government. 
RAYMOND FROST The Backward Society 

【参考译文】 
-----------以下内容回复可见-----------


【New words and expressions 生词和短语】 
hub n. (活动的)中心 
disunited adj. 分裂的 
correspondingly adv. 相应地 
backward adj. 落后的 
incur v. 承担 
administer v. 管理 
adminstrative adj. 行政管理的 
analogous adj. 类似的 
overheads n. 一般费用 
initiative n. 主动,积极性 
checker n. 检查人员 
foreman n. 监工 
dividend n. 红利 
unduly adv. 过度地 

【课文注释】 
1.disunited adj. 分裂的 
例句:Moreover, when the employees are disunited, unhappiness is bound to set in. 
更何况大家都不团结时,不愉快事件频频。 
You are wretched, disunited individuals. 
你们糟透了,分崩离析了。 
disunite  vt. 使分离, 使不和 
例句:The issue disunited the party members. 
该问题在党员中造成分裂。 
2.correspondingly adv. 相应地 
例句:The language correspondingly became stiffer. 
讲话的语言也相应地变得更加强硬。 
3.economic resources 经济资源 
4.backward adj. 向后的, 落后的 
例句:He took a backward step and ran away. 
他向后退了一步,跑了。 
This part of the country is still backward. 

这个国家的这个地区仍很落后。 


【词义辨析】 
点击查看大图back, backward, hind, behind 这些词均有“在后,向后”之意。 
back: 作为副词或形容词时,强调所修饰物的位置以及动作运动方向。 
backward: 可用于人或物,指向后的,落后的或迟钝的。 
hind: 指成对并且分前后的东西的“后面的”。 
behind: 指一物同它物相对的位置或场所。 
5.stay in business 维持营业 
6.be analogous to 与...相似 
例句:The human heart is analogous to a pump. 
人的心脏和泵类似。 
7.initiative 
n. 
①主动权,主动性 
例句:In the economic trend of the new era, having the initiative is the key. 
在新时期的经济大潮中,拥有主动权是关键。 
I put it all down to her hard work and initiative. 
我把这一切归因于她工作又勤奋又主动。 
② 首创精神 
例句:It is innovation plus initiative that has kept it thriving. 
创新与进取精神使得它蓬勃发展。 
adj. 
①创始的 
例句:The articles of incorporation usually name the initial directors. 
通常情况下,公司的组织章程应记载创始董事的姓名。 
②初步的 
例句:The panel's initial findings have now been made public. 
这个委员会的初步调查结果已经公布于众。 
③自发的 
例句:She took an initiative part in the Wildlife Conservation Society. 
他们自发牵制住了敌人。 
8. as falls within their sphere 属于他们分内的。 
9.keep someone in line 控制住某人 
例句:It's difficult to keep a group of young children in line. 
让小孩都老老实实的可真不易. 
【反义词】 
out of line 
例句:Don't get out of line at dinner or you will be punished. 
晚饭时给我老实点要不我就收拾你. 
10.keep them in order 管理他们 
11.in the interests of 符合......的利益 
例句:We work in the interests of the people. 
我们是为人民群众的利益而工作。 
12.unduly adv. 过度地,不适当地 
例句:An eccentric person, especially one who is unduly zealous. 
异人古怪的人,尤指过分狂热的人 

【作业时间】 
1. 我们为大家提供了两种主流英语发音的音频,请大家下载自己喜欢的一种,放到MP3里反复听!(刚开始练习英语听力和口语最好选定一种学习,不要英音美音混淆哦!) 
*注:[按部就班 攻克英魔]学习团成员及自主学习团成员 必须在本帖提交朗读音频哦!

2. 背诵、并默写今天的课文。实在没有时间的同学就抄写一遍吧。(论坛互动学习本期推出在线录音,希望大家多多开口,我会帮大家做点评,可能偶尔会稍有点儿晚,还请见谅哈) 

3. 用今天学到的单词或句型造句一个。 
disunited 
backward 
be analogous to 
initiative 
分类: 语法词汇
全部回复 (14) 回复 反向排序

  • 1

    点赞

  • 收藏

  • 扫一扫分享朋友圈

    二维码

  • 分享

课程推荐

需要先加入社团哦

编辑标签

最多可添加10个标签,不同标签用英文逗号分开

  • 时态
  • 从句
  • 非谓语
  • 词汇
  • 其他
保存

编辑官方标签

最多可添加10个官方标签,不同标签用英文逗号分开

保存
知道了

复制到我的社团