2014.11.30【英译中】网瘾真的存在吗?(一) 35句

发表于:2014-12-01 14:05 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

抱歉,这个是补上周的11月份的最后一次作业。

来源:The New Yorker,1868词,158句,共分为5篇



Is Internet Addiction a Real Thing?

网瘾真的存在吗?


Marc Potenza, a psychiatrist at Yale and the director of the school’s Program for Research on Impulsivity and Impulse Control Disorders, has been treating addiction for more than two decades. Early in his career, he, like most others studying addiction at the time, focused on substance-abuse problems—cocaine and heroin addicts, alcoholics, and the like. Soon, however, he noticed patients with other problems that were more difficult to classify. There were, for example, the sufferers of trichotillomania, the inescapable urge to pull your hair until it falls out.

马克·波坦扎是耶鲁大学的精神病学家,也是该校冲动性与冲动控制障碍研究项目的负责人,他治疗上瘾者已经有二十多年了。在职业生涯的早期,像当时研究上瘾的其他人一样,他致力于药物滥用——如可卡因和海洛因成瘾者、酗酒者等类似者。但是不久,他发现还有许多其它问题的患者非常难以归类。例如还有拔毛发癖患者,不可遏制地揪头发直到拔出来。


Others had been committed for problem gambling: they couldn’t stop no matter how much debt they had accumulated. It was to this second class of behaviors—at the time, they were not called addictions—that he turned his attention. Were they, he wondered, fundamentally the same?

还有些人染上赌博恶习:不管如何债台高筑他们也无法停止去赌。正是关于这第二类行为——那时他们未被称为成瘾者——马克转移了他的关注点。他想知道这些人的问题从根本上是一样的吗?


In some sense, they aren’t. A substance affects a person physically in a way that a behavior simply cannot: no matter how severe your trichotillomania, you’re not introducing something new to your bloodstream. But, in what may be a more fundamental way, they share much in common. As Potenza and his colleague Robert Leeman point out in a recent review of the last two decades of research, there are many commonalities between those two categories of addiction. Both behavioral and substance addictions are characterized by an inability to control how often or how intensely you engage in an activity, even when you feel the negative consequences. Both come with urges and cravings: you feel a sudden and debilitating need to place a bet or to take a hit in the middle of a meal. Both are marked by an inability to stop.

从某种意义来看他们不同。药物对人身体的影响会导致某种行为无能:可是无论你的拔毛发癖多么严重,你并没有注入新物质进到血液系统。但是,在某个更加基础的方面,他们是非常相似的。正如波坦扎和他的同事罗伯特·黎曼在最近的过去二十年研究综述中所指出:这两类成瘾者之间存在许多共性。行为成瘾和物质依赖的特征都是无法控制所从事行为的频度或强度,甚至感觉到了行为的负面后果也无法控制住。两者都伴有冲动和欲望:你会在吃饭时,感到一种突然的消磨人的需要而想去下注或者出击。两者都被标记为停止无能。


Substance and behavioral addictions also both seem to have some genetic basis, and, Potenza has found, the genetics seem to share many common characteristics. Some of the same gene mutations found in alcoholics and drug addicts, for instance, are often found in problem gamblers. Furthermore, the neurochemistry that these addictions evoke in the brain is similar. Drugs, for example, are known to affect the mesolimbic dopamine pathway—the pleasure center of the brain. Behaviors like gambling similarly activate the same parts of the brain’s reward circuitry. Earlier this year, Trevor Robbins, a cognitive neuroscientist at the University of Cambridge, and the psychologist Luke Clark, then at Cambridge and now the director of the Centre for Gambling Research at the University of British Columbia, came to a similar conclusion after conducting an overview of the existing clinical research into behavior addictions. The basic neuroscience of the two types of addiction showed a substantial overlap.

物质和行为上瘾者还都似乎有某种遗传基础,并且波坦扎发现,这种遗传有着很多共同的特征。例如,在酗酒者和毒瘾者体内发现一些相同的基因突变,这些基因突变常见于有问题的赌徒。此外,这些成瘾在大脑内激发的神经化学反应是相似的。举例来说,毒品已广为人知会影响中脑边缘多巴胺通路——大脑的兴奋中心。某些行为比如赌博会同样激活大脑相同部位的反馈回路。今年早些时候,剑桥大学的认知神经科学家特雷弗·罗宾斯,和心理学家卢克·克拉克,后者曾在剑桥现任英属哥伦比亚大学赌博研究中心主管,两人在总结了现有的行为成瘾者临床研究以后,得出了相似的结论。关于这两类成瘾者的基础神经科学显示出实质性的重叠。


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