初中英语基础知识

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发表于:2014-12-02 20:15 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

第一篇    基础知识

第一节    字母

英语是字母文字,共有26个字母,26个字母按一定的顺序排列在一起便组成字母表,英语中称之为“Alphabet”

1.26个字母的读音

第二节语音

关于语音的几个概念
1)
字母:语言的书写形式。元音字母a, e, i(y), o, u,
2)
音标:词的语音形式。
3)
音素:音的最小的单位。英语中有48音素。
4)
音节:由元音和辅音构成的发音单位。ap'ple, stu'dent, tea'cher, un'der'stand
5)
元音:发音响亮,是乐音;口腔中气流不收阻碍;是构成音节的主要音。英语中有20个元音。单元音有12个:/i:/  /I/  /e/  /æ/  /ə:/  /ə/  /∧/  /a:/ /כ/  /כ:/  /u/  /u:/ 双元音有8个/eI/  /aI/  /כI/ /əu/  /au/  /Iə/ /εə/ /uə/   

6)辅音:发音不响亮,是噪音;口腔中气流受到阻碍;不是构成音节的主要音。英语中有28个辅音。清辅音有 11个 :/p/ /t/ /k/ /f/ /s/ /θ/ /∫/ /h/ /t∫/ /tr/ /ts/ 浊辅音有17个:/b/  /d/  /g/ /v/  /z/  /δ/  /з/  /r/  /dз/  /dr/ /dz/  /m/  /n/  /ŋ /  /l/  /w/ /j/ 

7)开音节:a) 辅音+元音+辅音+e name bike ;b) 辅音+元音 he, go, hi
8)
闭音节:a) 辅音+元音+辅音 bad, bed, sit, hot, cup; b)元音+辅音it

9)
重读音节:单词中发音特别响亮的音节。

第二篇  语法知识梳理

第一节  词法

在英语中,共有10大词类,它们是:名词、动词、形容词、副词、数词、代词、冠词、介词、连词、感叹词。

一、    名词

1.  什么叫名词?

名词是表示人、事物、地点或抽象概念的名称。如:mother妈妈  panda熊猫 library图书馆  pencil 铅笔  wish愿望

2.  名词是如何分类的?

(1)  名词根据意义分为专有名词和普通名词。

 eq \o\ac(,1)1专有名词表示特定的人或事物的名称。如:Mr Green格林先生  the Spring Festival春节  the Great Wall长城  Britain英国

提示:1、人名都是专有名词

      2、专有名词的第一个字母必须大写。

 eq \o\ac(,2)2普通名词是不属于特定的人或事物名称的词。普通名词又分为个体名词和集体名词、物质名词和抽象名词。个体名词,如:radio(广播),watch(手表);集体名词,如:class(班级),people(人民);物质名词,如:milk(牛奶)water(水);抽象名词,如:work(工作),health(健康)。

(2)名词根据其表示的事物性质的不同,分为可数名词和不可数名词。

 eq \o\ac(,1)1可数名词表示的事物是可以用数字一个一个数出来的,有单数和复数两种形式。如:a banana一只香蕉 two bananas两只香蕉

 eq \o\ac(,2)2不可数名词表示的事物是不可以用数字一个一个数出来的,不分单、复数;抽象名词、物质名词和专有名词一般都是不可数名词。如:milk 牛奶 ice 冰 idea想法 France法国

 

提示:有少数名词既可作可数名词,也可作不可数名词,但含义不同。如:fish鱼肉(不可数)fish鱼类(可数)chicken鸡肉(不可数)chicken小鸡(可数)

3.    可数名词复数形式的构成规则是什么?

(1)   名词复数形式构成的基本规则:

情况

变法

例词

一般情况

-s

girl-girls  book -books

s\sh\x\ch 结尾的词

-es

bus-buses watch-watches

以“辅音字母+ y结尾的词

y i再加es

family-falimies

strawberry-strawberries

f fe结尾的词

f fe v再加es

half-halves wife-wives

o结尾的词

es  s

photo-photos piano-pinaos

radio-radios

zoo-zoos tomato-tomatoes potato-potatoes

复数形式词尾是 或 的读法如下:

情况

读法

例词

/p/ /t/ /k/ /f/  等清辅音后

/s/

cakes desks cups

/s/ /z/ /t∫/ /∫/ /dз/ 等后

/iz/

buses classes watches

在其他情况下

/z/

bananas zoos windows

(2)需要特别记住的是英语中有些名词的复数形式是不规则的。如:

Man-men  woman-women  foot-feet  tooth-teeth  mouse-mice child-children  sheep-sheep deer-deer fish-fish Chinese-Chinese

4.    如何表示不可数名词的数量?

(1)   不可数名词没有单、复数的区别,是不能直接以数字计算事物的名词,要表示“一”这个概念,我们可以用“a+表示数量的名词+ of+名词”的形式。如: a glass of water 一杯水 a cup of tea 一杯茶

(2)   如果要表达两个或两个以上的概念,表示数量的名词需要用复数形式,不可数名词不变。如:two glasses of water  两杯水 five bags of rice 五袋大米

提示:这种形式也可以用于可数名词,但名词必须用复数形式。如:a basket ofapples一篮子苹果five baskets of tomatoes 五篮子西红柿

5.    什么是名词所有格?

名词中表示所有关系的形式叫做名词所有格,意为“……的”,一般在名词后加是 ’s。如Grandma ’s  house 奶奶的房子 my parents ’car 我父母的车

(1)  如果名词代表的事物是有生命的,那么其所有格有以下几种形式:

分类

构成方式

举例

普通单数名词

在名词末尾加 s

Nancy s father

结尾的复数名词

在名词末尾加

the teachers books

特殊复数名词(不以 结尾)

在名词末尾加 s

Children  s Day

表示共有关系的

在最后一个名词的末尾加 s

Jim and Henlen s mother(两人共有一个妈妈)

表示各自所有关系的

在每个名词的词尾都加 s

Jim  s  and Henlen  s mothers(两人各自的妈妈)

 

提示:表示公共场所、或住宅的名词,其所有格后面常常省略被修饰的名词。

We will go to my sisters for dinner this afternoon.

今天下午我们将去我姐姐家吃饭。

Let s  go  to  the  barber s.   我们去理发店吧。

(2)   如果名词代表的事物是没有生命的,常与  组成短语来表示其所有格,表示前者属于后者。

It ’s a map of China.这是一张中国地图。

The name of the cartoon is Cinderella. 这部动画片的名字是《灰姑娘》。

例题引路

一、写出下列名词的复数形式。

1.baby        2.key           3.strawberry        4.life       

 5.half          6.woman        7.German        8.Japanese      

答案1.babies  2.keys  3. strawberries  4.lives  5.halves  6.women 7.Germans  8. Japanese

二、      翻译下列词组

1.长城               2.许多羊            3.三袋大米               4.五篮子鸡蛋                     5四位女教师                              6.八棵苹果树                  7七张老太太的照片                     8.她的一个朋友                     

答案1 .the Great Wall  2.many/a lot of sheep  3.three bags of rice 

4.five baskets of eggs  5.four women teachers  6.eight apple trees 7.seven photos of an old woman  8.a friend of hers

衔接训练

一、写出下列名词的复数形式。

1.pencil-box            2.wife          3.Sunday         4.city        5.dress             6.Englishman            7.match           8.Chinese           9.exam         10.library          11.radio         12. family           13.boy         14. photo             15.tomato                      16.dish         17.American            18.dictionary                 

三、单项选择

1.My father is a            .He works in a hospital.

A.teacher B. doctor C. farmer D. soldier

2.We need some more                .Can you go and get some ,please?

A. potato B. potatos C. potatoes D. a potato

3.In the picture there are many               and two           .

A. sheep; foxes B. sheeps ;foxes C. sheeps; fox D. sheep ; foxs

4.Let’s meet at 7:30 outside the gate of          .

A. the People’s Park B. the Peoples’ Park C. the People Park D. People’s Park

5.There are sixty-seven              in our school.

A.women’s teacher B. women teachers C. women teachers D. women teacher

6.This shop sells apples,bananas and things like these.It’s a         .

A. food shop B. book shop C. fruit shop D. vegetable shop

7.September10th is            inChina.

A.Teacher’s Day B. Teachers’ Day C. Teacher Day D .Teachers Day

8.The football under the bed is            .

A. Su Hai and Liu Tao    B. Su Hai’s and Liu Tao’s

C.Su Hai’s and Liu Tao   D. Su Hai and Liu Tao’s

9..The post office is a bit far from here. It’s about             .

A. thirty minutes’s walk   B. thirty minute’s walk

 C. thirty minutes ‘walk   D. thirty minutes walk

10.                 are  big and bright.

A. The classroom window     B. The window of the classroom

C.The classroom’s windows      D.   The windows of the classroom 

四、用所给名词的适当形式填空。

1.Are there three          (child)playing in the classroom?

2.Here’re two          (bottle)of       (milk) for you.

3.Daniel always wears a pair of           (glass) and he looks clever.

4.We do too much         (homework)every day so we have no time to play.

5.It’s Sunday and there are so many         (people)in the street.

6.You should brush your         (tooth)at least twice every day.

五、根据汉语提示完成句子。

1. Beijing is                    (中国的首都)

2.I’m hungry. Please give me                       (四片面包)

3.Are these(你父母的照片)                           ?

4.I visited(长城)                     last year.It’s really wonderful.

5                                  (Tom和Mike 的手表)are new. They bought them last Saturday.

6.You can found                      (一些苹果树)in the garden.

7.                            (杨玲和南希的桌子)is very clean,but     (她们的椅子)  are very dirty.

二、动词

1.动词的定义和分类

动词是表示动作 或状态的一类词。动词充当谓语时,要受到主语的限制,与主语在人称和数上一致。用来表示动作或状态在各种时间条件的动词形式称为时态。动词根据其在句中的功能,可以分为实义动词、系动词、助动词和情态动词四类。

2.实义动词

(1)实义动词的分类

实义动词也叫行为动词,即表示动作的动词,能独立作谓语。实义动词有及物动词和不及物动词之分。及物动词是指后面可以直接跟宾语的动词;不及物动词指

后面不可以直接跟宾语的动词。

We have friends all over the world. 我们的朋友遍天下。

George’s father lives there. 乔治的爸爸住在那儿。

提示:英语动词中有很多既是及物动词又是不及物动词,如close,begin,study,leave,work等。

(3)   实义动词的基本形式

有动词原形、第三人称单数形式、过去式、现在分词、过去分词。

3.系动词

(1)系动词的定义

.系动词亦称连系动词,不能单独做谓语,后面必须跟表语。

(2)系动词的功能

系动词的主要功能是把表语(名词、形容词、副词、非谓语动词、介词短语、从句)和其主语联系在一起,以说明主语的属性、特征或状态。它和其后的表语一起构成句子的谓语。

(3)常见系动词

My father is a policeman.

You will feel better after a night’s sleep.

It’s getting warmer and warmer in spring.

He looked angry/sad/happy.

The apples taste very good.

提示:有部分系动词也可以作为实义动词来使用。

He looked sad at the news. (“看起来”,系动词用法)

He kooked sadiy at the boy. (“看着”,实义动词用法)

4.助动词

(1)助动词的定义

助动词是语法功能词,本身没有词义,不可单独使用。

He doesn’t like English.

(2) 助动词的功能

 eq \o\ac(,1)1表示时态  He is singing.  He doesn’t go to school on Saturday.

 eq \o\ac(,2)2构成疑问句

Do you like college life?  Did you study English before you came here?

 eq \o\ac(,3)3与否定副词not 连用构成否定句

I don’t like playing computer games. They are not watching TV now.

(3)目前学过的助动词有:be(am/is/are),do(does/did)

 eq \o\ac(,1)1“am/is/are+现在分词”构成现在进行时态。

They are having a meeting. English is becoming more and more important.

 eq \o\ac(,2)2do/does/did构成一般疑问句、否定句、否定祈使句。

Do you want to pass the English exam?

He doesn’t like to study.  Don’t be late for school.

提示:do 也可以作实义动词,表示“做”。变否定句时必须借助don’t/doesn’t/didn’t

He does homework every day. He doesn’t watch TV on school days.

6.    情态动词

(1)   情态动词的定义及功能

情态动词是一种本身有一定的词义,但要与普通动词一起使用,给谓语动词增添情态色彩,表示说话人对有关行为或事物的态度和看法,认为其可能、应该或必要等得一类词。情态动词一般本身无人称和数的变化,其后面的实义动词要用动词原形。

She can swim fast, but I can’t. You must stay here until I come back.

(2)   常见情态动词的用法

 eq \o\ac(,1)1  can表示能力,意为“会,能”。表示客观可能性或推测时,用于否定句和疑问句;She can sing English songs.

It can’t (不可能)be Jim.I saw him at school just now.

Can /May(可以) I borrow your bike?

 eq \o\ac(,2)2 may 表示许可,用于陈述句;表示正式的请求或许可,用于一般疑问句。回答may 提出的问题,肯定形式为:Yes,please./ Yes, please do./Yes,certainly./Yes,you may. 否定形式为:No,you mustn’t./No, you can’t./Please don’t.

You may go out to ply now.

   ----May I smoke here?

   ----Yes,you may./No you mustn’t.

   eq \o\ac(,3)3must指客观可能性或猜测时,意为“一定”;表示“应当,必须”时 ,其否定形式为mustn’t 意为“禁止,不允许,千万别”。回答由must构成的一般疑问句,肯定形式为: Yes ,主语+must ;否定形式为:No,主语 +needn’t/don’t have to

It must (肯定)be Nancy’s book.Her name is on the cover.

You mustn’t (千万别) play football in the street.

------Must I hand in my homework tomorrow?

------Yes, you must. / No, you needn’t/don’t have to.

 eq \o\ac(,4)4should 表示“应该,应当”,shouldn’t表示“不应该”。

You should tell your mother the truth.

You shouldn’t make the same mistake.

例题引路

一、用所给动词的适当形式填空。

1.My father always         (help)my mother with housework.

2.The ships      (not be)in the river now;they      (be)there a moment ago.

3.Our family        (have)a new computer last month.

4.I can        (do )it better than you .

二、模仿例词写出所给动词的相应形式。

例词:do    does   doing   did

1. write    _______   _______  _______  _______

2.carry     _______   _______  _______  _______

3.wash     _______   _______  _______  _______

4.meet     _______   _______  _______  _______

衔接训练

一、单项选择

1.My brother_______ a teacher. He ________ his pupils very much.

A. is ; like  B.  is;  likes  C.  are;  likes  D. are; like

2.----How many days_________there in a week?

-----There_______seven.

A. is; is   B.are;  is  C. is;  are   D. are; are

3.My English teacher ________.

A. all look young   B. looks young  C. look young  D. all looks young

4.I ______busy now, but I ____ free next week.

A. am;  am   B. am; will  C. am;  will be   D. being;  will be

5.May I _______to Helen Brown?

A. tell    B. speak   C. talk   D. say

6.Yang Ling can _______clothes for the doll.

A. make;   B. makes   C. made    D. making

7.She looks ____because she will go toHainanfor a holiday.

A. happily   B. be happy   C. happy   D. happiness

8. ----________I use your pen,Dad?

-----Yes,you can .

A. May    B. Do    C. Am    D. Must  

二、用所给动词的适当形式填空。

1. Two and six_______(be) eight.

2.There ________(be)lots of sheep on the farm last year.

3.The boy with his friends_________(have)some homework every day.

4.You must _______(listen)to your teacher in class.

5.We like __________(watch)cartoons at the weekend.

6.Listen! Someone __________(sing)in the next room.

7.Su Hai wants___________(be)a teacher when she grows up.

8.What ________you ________(do)last night?

9. __________(not speak)loudly in the reading room.

10. I like ___________(read) very much,but I don’t like __________(read)today.I’m too tired.

三、形容词

1.什么是形容词?

形容词是用来修饰或描述名词或代词,以说明人或事物的性质、状态或特征的一类词。Jane is a beautiful girl.  Is there anything wrong with your MP4?

2.形容词在句中的位置是怎样的?几个形容词连用时,如何排序?

(1)形容词作定语一般放在被修饰的名词之前,系动词和不定代词之后。

She is a good girl.      I am tall and thin. 

There is something important to tell her. 

提示:1.有的形容词只能作表语,如:afraid害怕 ,alone 独自的,asleep睡着的,awake醒着的,alive活着的,well健康的,ill病的

2.某些形容词加上定冠词可以泛指一类人或整体的东西,谓语动词用复数。

The Chinese have long history.   We should help the old

(2)  多个形容词修饰名词时,音节少的形容词在前,音节多的在后.

She bought herself a new silk skirt.

I have long straight golden hair.

提示:多个形容词和其他词修饰名词时,其顺序是:限定词(冠词、指示代词、形容词性物主代词、数词)+描绘词(大小、长短、形状、新旧、长幼、颜色)+出处+材料性质+类别+名词

3.什么是形容词的比较等级?

绝大多数形容词有三种形式:原级、比较级和最高级。

Liu Hai is as tall as me .   (tall 是原级)

It is warmer today than it was yesterday.  (warmer是比较级)

She is the best student in her class.   (best是最高级)

4.形容词比较等级的构成规则是什么?(见八年级上语法附录)

5.形容词比较等级的几种用法

(1)形容词的原级可用于两个人或事物的比较,常用的有两种结构:

 eq \o\ac(,1)1肯定结构:as  +形容词的原级 + as  ,意为“和……一样”。

She is as careful as her mother.

 eq \o\ac(,2)2否定结构:not as /so +形容词的原级+as  ,意为“不如……”。

This dish is not as nice as that one.

(2)形容词的比较级用于两个人或事物的比较,常用的有四种结构:

 eq \o\ac(,1)1形容词比较级+than ,表示“……比……”。

  This film is more interesting than that one.

 eq \o\ac(,2)2形容词比较级+形容词比较级,表示“越来越……”。

  My sister is getting taller and taller.

 eq \o\ac(,3)3 the +形容词比较级,the  +形容词比较级,表示“越……越……”。

  The more, the better.

  The more careful you are ,the fewer mistakes you wii make.

 

 eq \o\ac(,4)4 the +形容词比较级 + of the two ,表示“两者中较……的一个”。

  Tom is the cleverer of the twins.

提示:比较级前可以加表示程度的副词 much ,even,a little等来修饰。

He is much stronger than Mike.

(3)  形容词的最高级用于三个或三个以上的人或事物的比较,常用“the +形容词的最高级+名词+范围(of/ in 短语或从句)”结构,意为“……中最……的”。

He is the busiest boy in our class.

Yao Ming is one of the most famous basketball players in NBA.

提示:形容词的最高级前要加 the,但如果形容词的最高级前有物主代词时,不需要加 the Today is my happiest day.

7.    常见形容词的反义词,你记住了吗?

bad---good  better---worst  best----worst  big---small/little  beautiful---ugly  black---white  busy—free  cheap---expensive  clean—dirty  clever---foolish

cloudy----sunny   cool—warm   cold---hot  dangerous---safe  dark---bright/light  dry---wet  early---late  easy—difficult  east—west  far---near  sunny---rainy  first---last  happy---unhappy/sad  hard---soft  ill---healthy/well  light---heavy  more---less/few  most---least/fewest  old---new  old—young  poor—rich  quiet---noisy   same—different   short---long  short---tall   slow---quick   small---big/large/great   strong---weak   thin---fat   thin---thick

例题引路

一、单项选择

1.I have_______to do today.I couldn’t help you now.

A.  anything important  B.  something  important

 C. important nothing   D. important something

2.---Is chemistry more difficult than physics?

 ---No, chemistry isn’t as _____as physics.

A.easy  B. easier  C. difficult  D. more  difficult

二、同义句转换。

1.Liu T ao is not as strong as Gao Shan.

.Liu T ao is______    ________ Gao Shan.

Gao Shan.is ______    ______ Liu T ao.

2.David is the tallest student in his class.

.David is_____than______  _____   _____ in his class.

衔接训练

一、用所给词的适当形式填空。

1.Of the three girls,I found Millie is the _________(clever).

2.There are ________(few)people here today than yesterday.

3.My sister is two years________(old)than I .

4.Jane’s parents have four daughters, and she is the ________(young)child.

5.The _________(cheap)things are not always the worst ones.

6.The short one is ____________(expensive)of the five.

7.The boy is not so _________(interesting)as his brother.

8. She will be much _________(happy)in her new house.

二、单项选择

1.He feels______today than yesterday.

A. tired   B .more tired  C. more tireder  D. much tired

2.Of the two toys,the child chose________.

A. the more expensive one   B. one most expensive 

C. a least expensive       D.the most expensive of them

3.The line is ____than that one.

A. more longer  B. not longer  C. much more longer  D. many more longer

4.The book is _______of the three.

A. thinner  B . the thinner   C .more  thinner  D. the thinnest

5.She looks ______than she is.

A. the more older  B, very older  C. much older  D. more older

6. The garden is becoming _______.

A. more and more beautiful  B. more beautiful and beautiful 

C. more beautiful and more  D. more beautiful and beautifuler

7._______hurry, _______speed.

A. More; less B. Much; little  C. The more; the less  D. The much; the little

8 Looking ______at his mother, the little boy looked_____.

A. happy;good  B. happy; well  C. sad; sadly  D. sadly; sad

三、根据汉语提示完成句子。

1.这本书跟那本书一样有趣。

This book is ____  __________ ________that one.

2.这个故事不如那个有趣。

This story is ______ ________than that one.

3.今天比昨天冷得多。

It is _________ ________ today _______ it was yesterday.

4.他对英语越来越感兴趣。

He is becoming ______ ________ _______ ______ in English.

5.他吃得越多,就越胖。

_______ _______ he eats , _______ _______he gets.

6.他比我大两岁。

He is______  _______  _______ than I.

 

 

四、副词

1.什么是副词?

副词是一种用来修饰动词、形容词、副词或全句的词,以说明时间、地点、程度、方式等概念。

We should listen to our teachers carefully.

In spring , I can see flowers everywhere.

2.副词的种类有哪些?

(1)方式副词,如quickly,neatly,happily

(2)地点、方位副词,如here,away,outside,west

(3)时间副词,如yesterday,already,just,now,before,later,often,sometimes

(4)强调副词,very,too,even,only,

4.副词在句中的位置和排列顺序

(1)时间、地点副词,小在前,大在后。

He comes fromNew York,America.

(2)方式副词,短在前,长在后。

Please write slowly and carefully.

(3)方式+地点+时间

The old woman runs very slowly along the river at 6:00 every morning.

4.副词同形容词一样也有比较级和最高级形式。

5.常见副词的区别:

(1)very,  much,  very much

Very用于修饰形容词或副词的原级;much用于修饰形容词或副词的比较级;very much用于修饰动词。

John is very good.

This garden is much bigger than that one.

I love music very much

(2)so , such

 eq \o\ac(,1)1 so修饰形容词或副词;such修饰名词。

My brother runs so fast that I can’t follow him.

He is such a boy.

 eq \o\ac(,2)2so修饰的形容词后可以有一个单数的可数名词,其结构是“so+形容词+a/an+可数名词单数”;such可修饰可数名词单复数和不可数名词,名词前可以有形容词作定语,其结构是“such+(a/an)+形容词+可数名词单数/复数/不可数名词”。

He is so clever a boy.=He is such a clever boy.

It is such cold weather.

They are such good students.

提示:如果可数名词复数前有many,few或 不可数名词前有 much ,little 修饰,用so不用such。

(3)also ,too, as well, either

also ,too, as well,用于肯定句,also常用于be动词、情态动词、助动词之后,行为动词之前,too, as well用于句末;either用于否定句末。

My father is a teacher. My mother is also a teacher.

= My father is a teacher.   My mother is a teacher as well.

= My father is a teacher.   My mother is a teacher,too.

I can’t speak French. Jenny can’t speak French,either.

(4)  sometime,  sometimes, some time, some times

sometime意为“某一时间“,可指将来,过去;sometimes意为“有时”;some time指“一段时间”;some times指“几次,几倍”。

We’ll have a test sometime next month.

Sometimes we are busy and sometimes,we are not.

He stayed inBeijingfor some time last year.

I have been toBeijingsome times.

例题引路

一、用所给词的适当形式填空。

1.He is too tired and he can’t walk as_______(quick)as his father.

2.I feel _________(well)today than yesterday.

3.Helen draws___________(care)of the girls in her class.

二、单项选择

1.Remember not to speak_______when we are in the reading room.

A. fast   B. slowly   C. politely        D.loudly

2.----What was the weather like yesterday?

----It was terrible.It rained so _______that people could______go out.

A.hardly; hard  B. hardly; hard  C. hard ; hardly  D. hard; hard

3.There was an accident at the corner._____,the girl wasn’t _____hurt.

A.Luckily; badly  B..Luck; hardly  C. Lucky; heavily D. Lucky;strongly

衔接训练

一、用所给词的适当形式填空。

1.Who gets up ________(early),Yang Linor Miss Liu?

2.Tom did well in the exam,so his classmates spoke________(high)of him.

3. He put on his coat and went out _______(quick)

4.It’s dangerous to stand outside,for the wind is blowing ________(strong).

5.He learns math ______(quick) than the other students.

6.English is _______(wide)used in the world.

7.They don’t know why you talked to them so __________(angry.)

8.It is raining _________(heavy),so you’d better not go out now.

9.He did the work as _________(careful) as most of us.

10.Li Lei and Lin Tao are working much________(hard)than before.

二、单项选择

1. Jack’s brother doesn’t work so ________as Jack.

A.  harder    B. hard   C . hardest   D. hardly

2.Jim speaks Chinese very_______.

A. good   B. better   C. well   D. best

3.He drives much _______than he did three years ago.

A. careful  B. carefully  C . more  careful   D. more  carefully

4. I think Math is _______more difficult than English.

A. much  B. very  C. too  D. so

5. My son looks _____today.He is playing _______with other children.

A. happy; happy   B. happy ; happily  C. happily; happily  D. happily; happy

6. Look! There is _______ice on the lake.

A. too much   B. too many  C. much too  D. so many

7.She walked into the room ______because her mother was sleeping.

A. clear    B.quiet   C.quick    . D. quietly

8. Jim’s computer is _______than ________. Don’t you think so?

A. a lot newer; Lin Tao       B. very new; Lin Tao’s 

C. much newer; Lin Tao’s     D.a little newer; Lin Tao

五、数词

1.什么是数词?

表示数目“多少”和顺序“第几”的词叫数词。分为基数词和序数词。参看课本,记牢 读音和拼写。

2. 基数词的用法

(1)表示“哪一年”,每两位数一读。

1998年,读作 nineteen ninety—eight   2009年 读作 two thousand and nine

(2)表示“几点”   at five o’clock

(3)表示编号  No.101 bus

(4)表示加减乘除   One and two is three.

(5)表示小数   5.3  读作  five point three

(6)表示百分数  40%  读作  forty percent

3.什么情况下用序数词?

(1)表示日期   3月8号 写作:March (the) eighth   读作: March the eighth

(2)表示分数   1/6 one sixth    3/5 three fifths

 

例题引路

单项选择

1.About _______of the books in our school library are written in Chinese.

A. fourth-fifth  B. four-fifth  C. four-fifths  D. fourths-fifth

2. The road is over _______meters long.

A. six hundred and fifty-two  B. six hundreds and fifty two C. six hundred , fifty-two  D. six hundred ,  fifty and two

3.January _______is New Year’s Day.

A. first  B. two  C. the first  D. the second

There were _______people in the meeting room yesterday.

A. two hundreds  B. two hundred of  C. hundreds of   D. hundred of

衔接训练

一根据句意,填入合适的数词。

1.Su Hai is ______(12)years old.She is in Class _______(5)Grade______(6).

2.September is the _______(9)month in a year.

3.Which girl is thinner,the ________(2)one or the _____(3) one?

4.One _______years is a century(世纪)。

5.There are ________minutes in an hour.

二、单项选择

1.----How many students are there in your school?

  ----_______the students in our school______over two thousand.

 A.The number of ;is        B. The number of;are  

C. A number of;is          D. A number of;are

2. The new student is in __________.

A. Class 2   B. Class Second  C. 2 Class  D. class 2

3.---How many teachers are there in your school?

----________, but I’ m not sure.

A. Hundreds    B. Hundred   C. Hundred of    D. One hundred

4.__Dad,when will you be free ? You agreed to go to the seaside with me four days ago.

---I’m sorry,Jean. But Ithink I will have a _______holiday soon.

A. four—days  B. four—day   C. fourth day   D. four day

5. This story happened on __________.

A. 2009,Oct.21st      B. Oct.21st , 2009  

C. 2009,21 October   D. 21st of October,2009

六、代词

1.什么是代词?如何分类?

代词是用来代替名词以及起名词作用的短语、分句和句子的一类词。按其指代作用不同可分为人称代词、物主代词、疑问代词、指示代词、反身代词、不定代词、关系代词、相互代词八类。

2. 人称代词

(1)人称代词的概念

人称代词是为了避免重复,用来代替前面提到的人或事物的名称的一类代词。

Jim and Liu Tao ,Miss Li is waiting for you!

Pick up your books and put them away.

(2) 人称代词的人称、数和格

人称代词是表示“我”、“你”、“他”、“她”、“它”、“我们”、“你们”、“他们”的词。表格见七年级附录

提示:说话的人为第一人称,听话的人为第二人称,被谈到的人或事物为第三人称。

 

人称

单数

复数

主格

宾格

主格

宾格

第一人称

   I

me

we

 us

第二人称

you

you

you

you

第三人称

he

him

 

they

 

them

she

her

it

it

 

(3)人称代词的基本用法

 eq \o\ac(,1)1人称代词主格在句中作主语,是动作的执行者。

She likes playing volleyball very much.

 eq \o\ac(,2)2人称代词宾格在句中作动词或介词的宾语,是动作的承受者。

Mr. Brown teaches us English.

You must look after them.

 

提示:两个以上人称代词并用时,通常you 放在第一位, I放在最后;复数we  放在第一位,they放在最后,简单记成:单数2.3.1;复数1.2.3。都是第三人称,女后男在先。You,Tom and I are leaving next month.

3.物主代词

(1)物主代词的概念

物主代词是表示所有关系的一类代词。

This isn’t my Walkman.It’s hers.

(2)物主代词分类:形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词。

人称

单数

复数

形容词性物主代词

名词性物主代词

形容词性物主代词

名词性物主代词

第一人称

my

mine

our

ours

第二人称

your

yours

your

yours

 

第三人称

his

his

 

their

 

theirs

her

hers

its

its

 

(3)物主代词的基本用法

 eq \o\ac(,1)1形容词性物主代词和形容词有相似之处,用来修饰名词,不可以单独使用。These are their books.  Her name is Cheng Jie.

 eq \o\ac(,2)2名词性物主代词相当于“形容词性物主代词+名词”,后面不必再加名词。

This is my pen .That is yours/your pen.

4. 疑问代词

(1)疑问代词基本用法

疑问代词在句中起名词词组的作用,常被用来构成疑问句,置于句首。

Whose book is this ?  What are you reading now?

(2)常见的疑问代词有:what,which,who,whom,whose等。指人的是who,whom,whose;指物的是:what;既可指人又可指物的是which。

Which do you like better , tea or milk?

What’s your father?

Whose books are these on the desk?

5. 指示代词

this,these ,指较近的事物;that, those指较远的事物。

6.反身代词

(1)反身代词的构成:myself, ourselves, yourself, yourselves herself, himself,

itself,  themselves,  oneself

(2)反身代词的用法

反身代词可以作宾语、表语、同位语等。

We enjoyed ourselves very much.

I bought a new coat for myself.

He himself did it .

7.不定代词

(1)常见的不定代词有:all, each,both,either,neither,little,few,many,much,other,another,some,any,somebody,anybody,nobody,everybody,someone,anyone,

no one,everyone,something,anything,everything,none.

(2) 常见的不定代词区别

 eq \o\ac(,1)1both,either,neither

both表示“两者都”,either 表示“两者中的任何一个”,neither 表示“两者都不”。

Both of us are right.  Either you two is OK.  Neither of us is right.

提示

1.both +名词复数= either +名词单数

There are many trees on both sides of the street.

= There are many trees on either side of the street

2.both…and…  作主语时谓语动词用复数,either…or… 和 neither…nor…作主语时谓语动词的单复数与邻近的主语保持一致。

Both Tom and Jenny are fromAmerica.

Either Tom or I am right.=Either I or Tom is right.

Neither Tom nor I am right.=Neither I nor Tom is right.

 eq \o\ac(,2)2few, a few, 与little ,a little

few和a few 修饰可数名词的复数,谓语动词都用复数,little 和a little 修饰不可数名词,谓语动词都用单数。a few ,a little 是肯定的含义,意为“一些”;  few,little是否定的含义,意为“几乎没有”。

A few students go to the park.     Few students go to the park.

He has a little hair.       He has little hair.

 eq \o\ac(,3)3each 和every

each 和every都意为“每一个”,后面的谓语动词都要用单数。但each比every更强调个体。Each具有形容词和代词两个词性,可以作句子主语;every只能作形容词,不作主语。

Each (man)has his life.   Every singer has his successful song.

 eq \o\ac(,4)4other,another,the other,others,与the others

other表示“其他的,另外的”,后面跟名词或代词;“another+单数名词”意为“又一个,另外一个”,泛指。无限定范围;the other表示“另外一个”,指两者中的另外一个;others表示“其他人”,泛指复数含义,无限定范围,后面不能跟名词;the others表示“其他人”,特指的复数,指在一定范围内去除一部分后剩下的另一部分。

I have two flowers.One is red, the other one is white.

Tom is taller than the others in his class.

Would you like another cup of tea?

There are many people in the park, some are talking,some are flying kites and others are reading.

例题引导

一、用other,the other,others,与the others 填空

1. He has two daughters.One is a nurse,________is a worker.

2. Some people like walking. Some like running.________like swimming.

3.Two boys will go to the zoo,and _______will stay at home.

4. Do you have any _______qustions?

二、单项选择

1.---________school is much larger than ________?

----Really?

AOur; your  B. Our; yours    C. Ours ; yours  D. We; you

2. ________are all in Class6.

A.You,I and he  B. He, you and I  C.I ,you and he   . D.You ,he and I

3.The buildings in Dalian are similar(相似的) to ______in Tokyo.

A. ones  B. those  C. these  D. that

衔接训练

一、单项选择

1,The weather in Guangzhou is better than ____in Shenyang.

A. that   B. it   C. this  D. one

2._______have a racing bicycle.

A.Each   B. Each of us   C.Every of us   D. We each

3.My bike is broken.May I borrow_________?

A. you     B. yourself   C. yours   D.your

4. I bought _______exercise books with _______money.

A. a few; a few   B. a few; a little  C. a little ; a few  .D. a little; a little

5.---_____is he?

He is a bus driver.

A.Who     B. Which   C. That   D. What

6.--- ________hat is this ?

----It’s________.

A.Whose;me   B. Who; mine  C. Whom; his   D.Whose; mine

7.He has ________to tell us.

A. something important    B. important something  

C. anything useful      D. useful nothing

8. _____of the teachers are OK in our school.

A. Every   B. Each  C. Either  D. All

9. Of the three foreigners, one is fromLondon,and _____are from thexUSA.

A.two others  B.the other two   C.. another two  D. the both

10. ---Which would you like,sir,tea or coffee?

---I don’t mind.______is OK.

A. Either   B. Neither   C. Any   D. Both

11. ________of us has read the newspaper,so we know nothing about it.

A.Some   B. Both  C. None  D. All

12. He is not a warm-hearted man, so _____people can get on well with hm.

A. few  B. a few  C. little  D. a little

七、冠词

1.什么是冠词?

冠词是一种虚词,它置于名词前,帮助说明名词的含义。本身没有意义,不可单独使用,只能和名词连用。英语中的冠词分不定冠词a/an和定冠词the两种。

2.不定冠词的含义和主要用法

不定冠词a/an通常泛指同类事物中的某一个(位、块、片……)。其中,a用在辅音音素开头的单词前,如a book; an用在元音音素开头的单词前,如an orange. 不定冠词主要有以下四种用法:

(1)   指人或事物的某一种类。

It’s a basketball.   A horse is a useful animal.  This is an interesting movie.

(2)   表示“一”这个数量,但数的概念没有  强烈。

   She has a small nose and long hair.

(3)指某人或某物,但不具体说明是何人或何物。

His grandfather is an old man .  There is an eraser on the desk.

(4)用于一些固定短语中,如:a few,a little,a lot of 等。

  3. 定冠词的含义和主要用法

定冠词the通常对所修饰的名词有指定作用,表示“这(那)个”,“这(那)些”。

定冠词主要有以下用法:

(1)   特指某(些)人或某(些)事物

 The girl in an orange dress is my sister.

(2)   指谈话双方都知道的人或物

Please look at the blackboard.

(3)   指上文提过得人或物

I went to the People’s Park yesterday. The park is beautiful.

(4)   指世界上独一无二的事物

The sun is bigger than the earth.

(5)   用在序数词和形容词最高级前

Gao Shan lives on the fifth floor.

(6)   用在由普通名词构成的专有名词前

the Great Wall,thePalaceMuseum

(7)   用在江、河、湖、海等专有名词前 

theChangjiangRiver, theYellow River

(8)   用在姓氏的复数形式前指一家

The Browns are very friendly.

(9)   用在乐器名称前  Can Tom play the violin?

(10)用在一些习惯用语中 in the morning,/afternoon/evening,in the end

4.什么叫零冠词?什么情况下不用冠词?

有些情况下,名词前面可以不用冠词。

(1)   专有名词前

He went tiNanjingthree days ago.

(2)   月份、周日、节日、季节前

He was born on July1st,1990.

(3)   三餐名词前

Liu Tao has lunch at school.

(4)   球类运动名称前

Mr Brown plays tennis very well.

(5)   职位、头衔和称呼语等名词前

Mum! Where are my shoes?

(6)   复数名词表示一类人或事物时

I  like  potatoes.

(7)   语言、学科等名称前

We have Math four times a week.

(8)   两个词义相同或相近的名词连用时

He works hard day and night.

(9)   名词前已经有作定语的指示代词、物主代词和不定代词时

This book is interesting.

(10)            泛指人类时

Man can’t live without air.

(11)            用在固定词组中  go to school,by train,in hospital,at night.

例题引路

单项选择

1.He give my sister _______usefil book yesterday.

A. an   B. a   C. /    D. the

2.My brother is_______honest boy,so he has many friends.

A. a    B. an    C. the   D./

3.More college graduates wanted to work in _____west part of country____next year.

A the; the   B. / ; /  C. / ; the   D. the ; /

4. Jim always answers the teacher’s questions_____.

A. in class   B. in the class    C. after class   D. at class

衔接训练

一、单项选择

1. ---What color is ________orange?

  ----It’s _______orange.

 A. an ; an   B. an; the    C. an  ; /   D. /; an

2.Look! The children are having ______good time.

A. /   B. the    C. an    D. a

3.Londonis _______capital of ____England.

A. the; the  B. a; a  C. a; the  D. the; /

4.There’re ____few mistakes in your homework.Don’t make____same mistakes again.

A. a; a  B. a; the  C. the; the  D. /; the .

5. Yesterday I went to _____work on _____foot.

A. the; /    B. / ; the    C./ ; /     D. the;the

6. There is ____”h”in the word “hour”, but ___”h” doesn’t make a sound.

A. a; a   B. a ; the    C. the ; an   D. an; the

7. He often says _____rich should help ___  poor.

A. the; a    B. a; the    C. the; the    D. / ; /

8 There was ______“s”on _______blackboard.

A. a; a    B. a ; the    C. an ; a    D. an ; the

9. There’s _____egg on the plate. ______egg is for you.

A. a; A   B. an ; An   C. an; The   D. the; An

10 Did you enter for ______high jump or _____400--- meter race?

A. a; a    B. a ; the   C. the ; a   D. the; the

11. _______old man in black is waiting for you for half ______hour.

A. The; an   B. The ; a  C. An ; a   D. An ; /

12._______elephant is _______huge animal.

A. An; an    B. An ; a    C. The; an   D. A ;an 

八、介词

1.什么是介词?

介词是一种用来表示词与词或词与句之间的关系的一种虚词。不能单独做句子成分。介词后面一般有名词、代词或相当于名词的其他词类或从句作它的宾语。

It’s about nine o’clock now.

Helen is like her mom.

2.介词的用法

(1)表示时间的介词

 eq \o\ac(,1)1at     at noon,  at night,

 eq \o\ac(,2)2on    on Sunday , on Monday morning,  on March8

 eq \o\ac(,3)3in     in next week, in November , in 2008, in summer, in the afternoon

 eq \o\ac(,4)4before   Wei Hua got up before 7 o’clock this morning.

 eq \o\ac(,5)5after    After that ,no one played with him.

 eq \o\ac(,6)6by     By the time I arrived, she had already gone.

 eq \o\ac(,7)7for    The workers often work for twenty-four hours without rest.

 eq \o\ac(,8)8during  Did you have a good time during the holiday?

 eq \o\ac(,9)9through  Through his life, he kept on learn ing new things.

 eq \o\ac(,10)10from    The workers were made to work from7 inthe morning to7 inthe evening.

 eq \o\ac(,11)11since   He has taught here ince 1992

(2)   表示地点或方位的介词

 eq \o\ac(,1)1at   at school , at home, at330 Heping Road,  at the station

 eq \o\ac(,2)2in   She will arrive inShanghaiat ten.

 eq \o\ac(,3)3on  on the table

 eq \o\ac(,4)4above     above the head

 eq \o\ac(,5)5over  There is a bridge over the river.

 eq \o\ac(,6)6under   under the tree

 eq \o\ac(,7)7below  The Dead Sea is below sea level.

 eq \o\ac(,8)8near  =not far  My home is near  the  school.

 eq \o\ac(,9)9by  He walks by the side of the sea every day.

 eq \o\ac(,10)10between  Sue sits between Judy and Nancy.

 eq \o\ac(,11)11among  There are some Americans among us.

 eq \o\ac(,12)12around  They sat around the table.

 eq \o\ac(,13)13in frint of  There is a car in front of the house.

 eq \o\ac(,14)14behind   He put his bike behind the tree.

 eq \o\ac(,15)15to   Jack got to school at 8:00a.m yesterday.

 eq \o\ac(,16)16from  How far is it fromLondontoNew York?

(3)   表示手段和材料的介词

 eq \o\ac(,1)1with  a. She lives with her son.

       b.The girl with long hair is my classmate.

       c. My American friend is learning to eat with chopsticks.

 eq \o\ac(,2)2in  What’s this in English?

      The woman in a red coat is Lucy’s mom.

 eq \o\ac(,3)3by  What do you mean by the word “island’?

      I like traveling br train.

(4)动向介词

 eq \o\ac(,1)1into ; out of

 He jumped into the swimming pool. 

We looked out of the window and saw many  flowers.

 eq \o\ac(,2)2up ; down

 The little monkey climbed up the tree quickly.

 Walk down the street and you will see a bookshop on the right.

 eq \o\ac(,3)3across ; through ; along

Be careful when you walk across the bridge.

We walked through the woods.

He is walking along the river.

(5)  其他介词

 eq \o\ac(,1)1of   It was the beginning of the term..

 eq \o\ac(,2)2like  Like many children of her age,Ding Ding is a Young Pioneer.

 eq \o\ac(,3)3as  She works as a waitress in a restaurant.

 eq \o\ac(,4)4against  He is sitting against the tree.  Are you against me?

 eq \o\ac(,5)5about  He likes reading books about history.  What about your family?

 eq \o\ac(,6)6for  Do you know what he comes here for?

衔接训练

单项选择

1.Children get gifts ____Christmas and _____their birthdays.

A. on ; on   B. at ; on  C. in ; in   D. in ; on

2. Mike does his exercises_______seven ____the evening .

A. on; to   B. by ; of   C. at ; in  D. at ; on

3. _____a cold winter morning, I met her in the street.

A.  In    B. On   C. At      D. For

4. He often goes _____school _____six thirty ____the morning.

A. for ; to ; in   B. for ; at ; to  C. to ; for; at   D. to ; at ; in

5. The doctor worked ______five hours _____a rest.

A. for; with  B. on ; without  C. about ; having  D. for ; without

6. The teacher is coming back ________an hour.

A. after    B. for   C. in   D. before

7. I don’t like to sit _____Tom’s  right. I would like to sit ____the back row.

A. on ; in   B. in ; on   C. on ; at   D. at ; on 

8 . The apple is ______the tree and the cat is ____the tree ,too.

  A. on ; in   B. on ; on  C. in ; on  D. in ; in

9.Lucy sits _____the third row ,_____Jim’s left.

A. on ; on   B. in ; at   C. at ; in   D. in ; on

10. They are waiting _______a bus ________the bus stop.

A. for ; in    B. on ; at   C. for ; at   D. with ; at

九、 连词

一、概说

连词是一种虚词,用于连接单词、短语、从句或句子,在句子中不单独用作句子成分。连词按其性质可分为并列连词从属连词。并列连词用于连接并列的单词、短语、从句或句子,如and, but, or, for等;从属连词主要引出名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句等)和状语从句(时间状语从句、条件状语从句、目的状语从句等),引出名词性从句的连词如that, whether等,引出状语从句的连词如when, because, since, if 等。

二、并列连词的用法

◆ 1. 表示转折关系的并列连词有but, yet however等。如:

I like apples ,but my sister likes oranges.= Ilike apples ,however, my sister likes oranges.

He said he was our friend, yet he wouldn’t help us. 他说他是我们的朋友,但却不肯帮助我们。◆ 2. 表示因果关系的并列连词。这类连词主要有 for, so 等。如:

The child had a bad cough, so his mother took him to the doctor. 这孩子咳得很利害,所以他妈妈带他去看医生。

You are supposed to get rid of carelessness, for it often leads to serious errors. 你们一定要克服粗枝大叶,因为粗枝大叶常常引起严重的错误。

注意:for表示结果通常不能放句首,也不能单独使用。

◆ 3. 表示并列关系的并列连词。这类连词主要有 and , or , either…or , neither…nor , not only…but (also) , both…and , as well as 等。如:

He didn’t go and she didn’t go either. 他没去,她也没去。

The weather is mild today; it is neither hot nor cold. 今天天气很温暖,不冷也不热。

BothNew YorkandLondonhave traffic problems. 纽约和伦敦都存在交通问题。

It is important for you as well as for me. 这对你和对我都很重要。

People who are either under age or over age may not join the army. 年龄不到或者超龄的人都不得参军。

三、从属连词的用法

◆ 1. 引导时间状语从句的从属连词

(1) 表示时候每当的时间连词。主要的 when, while, as, whenever。如:

Don’t talk while you’re eating. 吃饭时不要说话。

Vegetables are best when they are fresh. 蔬菜新鲜时最好吃。

He came just as I was leaving. 我正要走时他来了。

(2) 表示之前(或之后)”的时间连词。主要的有before, after。如:

Try to finish your work before you leave. 离开前设法把工作做完。

After we have finished tea, we will sit on the grass. 喝完茶之后我们将坐在草地上。

(3) 表示自从直到的时间连词。主要的有since, until, till。如:

She’s been playing tennis since she was eight. 她从八岁起就打网球了。

He didn’ leave until the rain stopped.

Never trouble trouble till trouble troubles you. ()不要无事惹事。

(4) 表示的时间连词。主要的有as soon as, 如:

I’ll let you know as soon as I hear from her. 我一接她的信就通知你。

例题引路

单项选择

1. They are all new,_______I’m not.

A. and   B. but   C. so  D . or

2. Which is gigger ,the sun _____the moon?

A. so  B. or   C.and   D.but

3. Do you have any brothers ____sisters/

A. so   B. or    C. for  D. but

4. Do more exercise________you are not good at P.E.

A. so   B. but   C. or  D. because

5. You have three boks; I have five books. ___I have two more books than you.

A. And   B. But   C.So   D. If

6.—What do you want to buy?

---A book _______two pens.

A. but   B. or  C. and   D. so

7. Miss Li is taller ____her sister.

A. than  B.but  C. if  D. as

8. My brother goes to work on Sundays____I don’t.

A. because   B. but  C. and  D. so

9. _______I finish my homework , I will watch TV.

A. After  B. Before  C. When  D. As

10. She knew nothing about Hong Kong______she went there.

A. or   B. before   C. because   D. as

11. I’d like some bread ______butter.

A. but   B. and  C. nor  D. or

12.Just let me know ________you need any help.

A. because   B.before  C. if  D. and

13.Gao Shan was sad _______couldn’t find his toys.

A. so   B. and  C. but  D. because

第2节句法

一、概述

1. 什么是句子成分?
组成句子的各个部分叫句子成分。英语句子成分有主语,谓语,表语,宾语,宾语补足语,定语,状语等。 
顺序一般是主语,谓语,宾语,宾语补足语,而表语,定语,状语的位置要根据情况而定。
 1)主语 

主语表示句子主要说明的人或事物,一般由名词,代词,数词,不定式等充当。

He likes watching TV.  English is very useful for us . Swimming is a good sport.

(2)谓语

谓语说明主语的动作,状态或特征。 一般可分为两类:

 eq \o\ac(,1)1简单谓语 :由动词或短语动词构成。 可以有不同的时态,语态和语气。

We study for the people.我们为人民学习。

We got there yesterday morning.

 

 
 eq \o\ac(,2)2复合谓语:由“情态动词+动词原形”构成 

I can speak a little English.我可以说一点英语。

3)表语 
表语是谓语的一部分,它位于系动词如be之后,说明主语身份,特征,属性或状态。一般由名词,代词,形容词,副词,不定式,介词短语等充当。 
My sister is a nurse.我姐姐是护士。 She looks happy.
(4)宾语 
宾语表示动作行为的对象,跟在及物动词之后,能作宾语的有名词,代词,数词,动词不定式等。 
We like English.我们喜欢英语。 
有些及物动词可以带两个宾语,往往一个指人,一个指物,指人的叫间接宾语,指物的叫直接宾语。 
He gave me some ink.他给了我一点墨水。 
有些及物动词的宾语后面还需要有一个补足语,意思才完整,宾语和它的补足语构成复合宾语。如: 
We make him our monitor.我们选他当班长。 
(5)定语 
在句中修饰名词或代词的成分叫定语。 用作定语的主要是形容词,代词,数词,名词,副词,动词不定式,介词短语等。形容词,代词,数词,名词等作定语时,通常放在被修饰的词前面。 
He is a new student.他是个新生。 
但副词,动词不定式,介词短语等作定语时,则放在被修饰的词之后。 
The bike in the room is mine.房间里的自行车是我的。 
(6)状语 
修饰动词,形容词,副词以及全句的句子成分,叫做状语。用作状语的通常是副词,介词短语,不定式和从句等。状语一般放在被修饰的词之后或放在句尾。副词作状语时可放在被修饰的词前或句首。 
He lives in London.他住在伦敦。 The children are playing happily.
(7)补语

补语用来说明宾语或主语所处的状态或正在进行的动作,作补语的有形容词、副词、名词、不定式、动词-ing形式、数词等。We will make our country more beautiful.

2.句子是如何分类的?

(1)句子按使用目的可分为陈述句、疑问句、祈使句和感叹句。

 eq \o\ac(,1)1陈述句:用来说明一个事实的句子叫陈述句。它有肯定句和否定句两种形式。
▲陈述句的肯定式: He is a middle school student.(他是个中学生)/  She teaches us geography.(她教我们地理)/ The new play was good enough and everybody enjoyed it.(新的话剧非常好大家都喜欢)
▲陈述句的否定式:My brother is not a teacher.(我的弟弟不是教师)/ He does not have a cousin.(他没有堂兄弟)/ I will not go there tomorrow.(明天我不去那儿)/ My mother is not cooking a meal in the kitchen.(我母亲现在不在厨房里做饭)/ You must not make such mistakes again.(你不该再犯类似错误了)

 eq \o\ac(,2)2、疑问句:提出问题。分一般疑问句、特殊疑问句、选择疑问句、反意疑问句四种。

如:Is he an engineer?(他是工程师吗?)Do you get up at six every morning?(你天天早晨六点起身吗?)/ Does she study hard?(她学习努力吗?)/ Did you go there yesterday?(昨天你去那儿了吗?)What do you want?(你要什么?)Why did he go to bed so early?(他为什么这么早睡觉?)/ How did you go there?(你是怎么去的那儿?)Do you want tea or coffee? He never went there, did he? (他从没有去过那里是吗?)
 eq \o\ac(,3)3、祈使句:祈使句用来表示请求、命令等。它的主语you往往不说出。
▲祈使句的肯定式: 动词(原形) + 其他 如:Please give me a hand. (请帮忙) / Shut up! (住嘴!)
▲祈使句的否定式: Don’t +动词原形 + 其他 如:Please don’t talk in low voices. (请不要低声讲话。)

 eq \o\ac(,4)4、感叹句:感叹句用来表示喜怒哀乐等强烈感情。句末常用“!”

如:What a good, kind girl (she is)! (她是多么善良的好女孩!) / What bad weather (it is)! (天气真糟糕!)How carefully the old man walks! (这老人走路真小心!) / How delicious the food is! (这食品真好吃!) / How beautiful! (真美呀!)
(2)句子按其结构可分为简单句、并列句和复合句。
 eq \o\ac(,1)1简单句
1、简单句的特点:简单句通常只由一个主语(或并列主语)和一个谓语(或并列谓语)构成。
2、简单句的种类:简单句一般分为陈述句、疑问句、感叹句和祈使句四种。
She laughed.

 eq \o\ac(,2)2并列句: 由两个或两个以上并列而又独立的简单句构成。两个简单句常由并列连接词连在一起;但有时不用连接词,只在两个简单句之间用逗号或分号。

He works in this shop and he likes working here.

 eq \o\ac(,3)3复合句:包含一个主句和一个或多个从句的句子。

The boy thinks that he can do this job well.

3.简单句五种基本句型:
句子包含主要句子成分(主语、谓语)和次要句子成分(表语、宾语、宾语补足语),按照动词的性质将英语简单句划分为以下五种基本句型:
1、基本句型的词序:            

主谓句型:SVi       I work.

主系表句型:SVlinkP   John is busy.

主谓宾句型:SVt.O   She studies English.

主谓双宾句型:SVtO间宾O直宾  My mother made me a new dress.

主谓宾补句型:SVtOC   The story made us  laugh.

一、陈述句

1. 什么是陈述句?

陈述句是用于陈述事实或观点的句子。句末必须使用句点“.”分肯定句和否定句两种。

The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.

His father didn’t come to see him yesterday.

2. 肯定句如何变成否定句?

1be 动词的否定式

be 动词根据不同的人称和时态有不同的形式,在一般现在时中是am is are ;在一般过去时中是was were。构成否定式时,一律在其后加否定词not

Iam a student . Iam not  a student .

(2)情态动词的否定式

情态动词的否定式是在其后加notIcan swim. Icannot(can’t) swim.

3)实义动词的否定式

含有实义动词的句子变否定句时,要借助助动词do,does,did等来构成否定式。在一般现在时中借助do,does,在一般过去时中借助did

I like pop music. I do not (don’t)like pop music.

He likes running. →He does not (doesn’t)like running.

She does her homework at home. →She doesn’t do her homework at home.

He went to the zoo lask Sunday. →He  did not(didn’t)go to the zoo lask Sunday.

三、    疑问句

1. 疑问句的定义  用来提出问题的句子叫疑问句,句末问号。

Are you good at playing basketball?

What are you looking for?

He is in a red coat,isn’t he?

2.疑问句的种类 :一般疑问句、特殊疑问句、选择疑问句、反意疑问句四种。

Have you been there before?    What day was it yesterday?

Can you speak English or Chinese?  He is a driver,isn’t he?

3 . 一般疑问句

(1)什么是一般疑问句?一般疑问句是如何构成的?

要用yes 或 no回答的疑问句,叫一般疑问句。读时用升调。

 eq \o\ac(,1)1含系动词be的一般疑问句的构成.具体地说,就是当陈述句中有am /is / are时,可直接将它们提至主语前,但如遇第一人称,最好将其置换成第二人称。如:

I'm in Class 2, Grade 1. →Are you in Class 2, Grade 1? 你是在一年级二班吗?

 eq \o\ac(,2)2含实义动词的一般疑问句的构成。含实义动词的一般疑问句的构成根据不同时态和人称在句首加助动词do,does,did.

  She lives inBeijing. →Does she live inBeijing? 她住在北京吗?

  I like English. →Do you like English? 你喜欢英语吗?

  eq \o\ac(,3)3 情态动词的一般疑问句的构成. 一般疑问句面前人人平等:情态动词与am / is / are一样,直接将它们提至主语前.   I can spell it. →Can you spell it? 你会拼写它吗?

 eq \o\ac(,4)4少数口语化的一般疑问句. 如问一个与前文相同的问句时,可省略成"And you?"或"What / How about...?"等;甚至只抓关键词,读作升调。如:Your pen? 你的钢笔?

(2)一般疑问句的应答

肯定回答用Yes 否定回答用No,通常用简略形式回答。且答语中主语后的各种动词要与问句中句首词的词类保持一致。

 eq \o\ac(,1)1be动词引出的一般疑问句,答语中主语后用动词be的相应形式(am, is,are,was,were).

Is this your English book?
肯答: Yes,it is.
否答: No,it isn`t.

Are these your English books?
肯答: Yes,they are.
否答: No,they aren’t.

 eq \o\ac(,2)2do 的各种形式引出的一般疑问句.  答语中主语后用动词do的相应形式(do,does.did)

Do your parents like English?
肯答: Yes,they do.
否答: No,they don’t.

 eq \o\ac(,3)3can,will引出的一般疑问句., 答语中用can,will的相应形式(can,could;will,would).

---Can you sing and dance, Lucy?

----Yes, I can./No, I can’t.

 eq \o\ac(,4)4must 引出的一般疑问句.肯定回答用must,否定回答用needn’t.

---Must we clean the room?

---Yes,you must. /No, you needn’t.

4. 特殊疑问句

(1) 以特殊疑问词开头,对陈述句中的某一部分提出疑问 / 进行发问的句子叫特殊疑问句。

特殊疑问句的构成: "特殊疑问词+一般疑问句"构成.

How old are you?    What's this in English?

疑问代词:what,who,Which,whose,whom

疑问副词:when,where,why,how

疑问形容词:what(which,whose)+名词

(2)疑问代词的用法

1.what引导的疑问句

此类疑问句可以对主语、表语和宾语提问。

a.对主语提问

What is in your pocket?

你口袋里有什么?

☆这个问题可以有两种回答:

a:There is an egg in it.

在口袋里有一个蛋。

b:An egg is(in it).

一个蛋(在里面)。

What's in the room?

屋子里有什么?

There are a lot of chairs in it.

=A 1ot of chairs are in it.有许多椅子。

注意

回答此句型的问题时,答句的单复数根据实际情况而定。

b.对宾语提问

What did you buy?你买了什么?

I bought a bike.我买了辆自行车。

c.对表语提问

What is this?这是什么?

It's a bench.这是一条长凳。

What is your mother?你妈妈是干什么的?

注意

What is+人?此句型是问人的职业,一般译为“是干什么的?”

She is a teacher.她是个老师。

2.Who,whom,whose引导的疑问句

此类疑问句可以对主语、表语和宾语提问。

Who broke the window?(对主语提问)

☆who可以对主语和表语提问。whom是who的宾格,对宾语提问,但在口语中who可以代替whom。

谁打破了窗户?

Li Ming did.李明打破的。

Who is that woman?(对表语提问)

那个女人是谁?

She is my mother.她是我妈妈。(关系)

或者:She is Rose.她是罗思。(姓名)

注意

Who is+人?是询问某人的姓名或与人关系的问句。与What is+人?(问人的职业)不同。

Whose is this umbrella?这伞是谁的?

This umbrella is my sister's.

这伞是我姐姐的。

注意

whose之后如果没有名词时,表示“谁的(东西)……”。

Which引导的特殊疑问句此类疑问句可以对主语和宾语提问。

Which is Tom's?(对主语提问)哪个是汤姆的?

This is his.这是他的。

Which does he want?(对宾语提问)

他想要哪一个?

He wants the green one.他想要那个绿色的。

注意

疑问词what,who,which在句中作主语时,语序是陈述句语序。

2 疑问形容词的用法

what,which,whose后面跟上名词时,这三个疑问词起形容词作用。

What sports do you like?(对宾语提问)

你喜欢什么运动?

I like basketball.我喜欢篮球。

Whose pens are these?(对表语提问)

这些是谁的钢笔?

They are Li Ming's.这些是李明的。

Whose father died two years ago?(对主语提问)

两年前谁的父亲死了?

Which picture did you take?(对宾语提问)

哪一张照片是你拍的?

I took the one on the right.

右边的那一张是我拍的。

3 疑问副词的用法

句型:疑问副词+一般疑问句的语序~?

(疑问副词在句中作状语,所以它们不可能对主语提问)

1.when引导的疑问句:询问时间

When were you born?你何时出生?

(I was born)on June 5, 1962.

我是1962年6月5日出生的。

注意

when引起的疑问句,都可用简略式回答,只回答出时间就可以了。

When will you go to Japan?你什么时候去日本?

(I'll go there)next year.我明年去那儿。

☆when问的是具体时间,所以不能和完成时连用。

(×)When have you been here?

(○)How long have you been here?

你呆在这里有多久了?

(○)When did you come here?

你什么时候来这里的?

2. where引导的疑问句:询问地点、场所

Where do you live?你住在哪儿?

(I live in)Beijing.(可以简略回答出地点)

我住在北京。

Where are you going?你准备去什么地方?

I am going to Japan.我准备去日本。

3.why引导的疑问句:询问原因

它的回答只能用because引导的原因状语从句。

Why are you late?你为什么迟到?

Because I met the accident.

因为我遇上车祸了。

Why didn't you see the movie?

Why did you not see the movie?

你为什么不去看那部电影?

Because I had seen it before.

因为我已经看过了。

4.how引导的疑问句:可分为两类

a."How…?"how可单独地置于疑问句的句首。

询问如何地做某事即做某事的方法、手段及健康、天气……

How do you go to school?(问方式)

I go to school by bus.我坐公共汽车。

How are you?(问健康)你身体怎样?

I'm fine. Thank you!我很好。谢谢你。

How is the weather today?(问天气)

今天天气如何?

It's cloudy.今天多云。

b:How +形容词(副词)

 eq \o\ac(,1)1how often 多久一次

How often does Bob watch TV?

 eq \o\ac(,2)2how much多少,问价格,重量 

How much is the book?

 eq \o\ac(,3)3 how many多少问可数名词的数量

How many people are there in your family?

 eq \o\ac(,4)4 how old 问年龄

How old is your father ?

 eq \o\ac(,5)5how long多久,问一段时间

How long did you stay there?

 eq \o\ac(,6)6how soon 多久之后,与一般将来时连用

How soon will you be back?

5.选择疑问句

1)定义:选择疑问句表示提供两种或两种以上的情况,要求对方在所提供的范围、对象内选择。在所提供的最后一个备选对象前面用表示选择关系的并列连词or,朗读时or前用声调,or 后面用降调,句末用问号。

选择疑问句的结构
  eq \o\ac(,1)1一般疑问句+一个备选对象or+另一个备选对象。例如:
  Shall we go there by bus, bike or train? 我们乘公共汽车、自行车还是火车去?(备选对象为三者)
  Would you like some tea or coffee? 你要茶水还是咖啡? (备选对象为二者)
  Did you stay at home or at school yesterday? 你昨天呆在家还是在学校?(备选对象为二者)

 eq \o\ac(,2)2特殊疑问句+一个备选对象or+另一个备选对象。例如:
  Which would you like best, English, Chinese or Math? 你最喜欢哪门学科,英语、语文还是数学? (备选对象为三者)
  When will you go to Canada, Sunday or Monday? 你何时去加拿大,星期天还是星期一?(备选对象为二者)

(2)选择疑问句的回答  不能用Yes /No来回答。

----Shall we play basketballor football?

----Play football.

6. 反意疑问句

是由一个陈述句加上一个短问句而构成的。反意疑问句的基本构成形式是:陈述句+动词(肯定或否定)+主语?如:

She often has lunch at school, doesn't she? You don't like sports, do you?

使用反意疑问句要注意以下若干对应规则:

一、 反意疑问句中问句部分的动词与陈述部分的动词在语气上成相反的对应关系,即:

肯定+否定? 否定+肯定?如:

You can't do it, can you? They are very late for the meeting, aren't they?

二、 反意疑问句中问句部分的动词与陈述部分的动词种类要对应一致。如:

He has supper at home every day, doesn't he? (不能用hasn't he?

They have known the matter, haven't they? (不能用don't they?

三、 反意疑问句中问句部分的动词在时态上应和陈述部分的时态一致。如:

They will go to town soon, won't they?(不能用don't they? aren't they?

He works very hard, doesn't he?(不能用didn't he?won't he?

四、 反意疑问句的陈述部分含有由un-, im-, in-, dis-, 等否定意义的前缀构成的词语时,陈述部分要视为肯定含义,问句部分用否定形式。如:

Your father is unhappy, isn't he?(不能用is he?

The man is dishonest, isn't he? (不能用is he?

It is impossible to learn English without remembering more words, isn't it?(不能用is it ?

五、反意疑问句的陈述部分带有little, few, never, hardly, seldom等否定意义的词时,问句部分用肯定式。如:

She never tells a lie, does she?(不用doesn't she?

He was seldom late, was he?(不用wasn't he?

六、反意疑问句的陈述部分为I am……时,问句部分习惯上用aren't I?表示。如:

I am a very honest man, aren't I?

七、反意疑问句的陈述部分为I(We) think(believe, suppose, consider) + that从句时,问句部分的动词及主语与that从句内的动词和主语保持一致。如:

I think that he has done his best, hasn't he?

We think that English is very useful, isn't it? (不用don't we?

八、反意疑问句的陈述部分为I(We) don't think(believe, suppose, consider)+ that从句时,从句为否定意义,问句部分的动词和主语仍与that从句保持一致且用肯定式。如:

I don't think that you can do it, can you? (不用do I?

We don't believe that the news is true, is it? (不用do we?

九、反意疑问句的陈述部分为非第一人称主语+ think(believe, suppose, consider) + that从句时,问句部分的动词和主语与陈述部分的主句动词和主语保持一致。如:

They all think that English is very important, don't they? (不用isn't it?

He didn't think that the news was true, did he? (不用wasn't/ was it?

十、反意疑问句的陈述部分为主语+said( told, reported, asked……) + that从句时,问句部分的动词和主语与陈述部分的主句动词和主语保持一致。如:

They said that you had finished your work, didn't they? (不用hadn't you

Kate told you that she would go there, didn't she? (不用wouldn't she?

十一、陈述部分的主语为不定代词something, anything, nothing, everything时,问句部分的主语用it。如:

Something is wrong with the computer, isn't it?Nothing has happened to them, has it?

十二、陈述部分的主语为不定代词somebody(someone), anybody(anyone), nobody(no one), everybody(everyone)时,问句部分的主语用he they,这时问句动词的数应和he they一致。如:

Someone has taken the seat, hasn't he?Everyone has done their best in the game, haven't they?

十三、陈述部分为Let me……时,问句部分习惯上用shall I? will you?形式。如:

Let me have a try, shall I?(will you?)

十四、陈述部分为Let us……时,问句部分习惯上用will you?形式。如:

Let us stop to rest, will you?

十五、陈述部分为Let's……时,问句部分习惯上用shall we?形式。如:

Let's go home together, shall we?

十六、陈述部分用上述情况以外的祈使句时,问句部分一般用will you?形式表示请求,用won't you?形式表示委婉请求或邀请。如:

Do sit down, won't you?/ will you? You feed the bird today, will you?

Please open the window, will you?(won't you?)

十七、陈述部分为否定祈使句时,问句部分一般用will you?形式。如:

Don't make any noise, will you?

十八、陈述部分为There (Here) + be + 主语时,问句部分用动词+there(here)?形式。如:

There are two cakes on the plate, aren't there? Here is a story about Mark Twain, isn't here?

十九、陈述部分用had better +原形动词表示建议时,问句部分用hadn't +主语?形式。

You'd better tell him about the matter, hadn't you?We had better do it by ourselves, hadn't we?

二十、陈述部分用used to +主语时,问句部分用didn't + 主语?或usedn't +主语?形式。

He used to live in the country, didn't he?/usedn't he?

They used to be good friends, didn't they?/usedn't they?

二十一、陈述部分用must(may, might) + have + V-ed表示推测时,若句中带有明显的过去时间的状语,问句部分动词用过去时形式。如:

He might have forgotten his pen in the classroom yesterday, didn't he?

(不用mightn't he?/ hasn't he?

You must have got up late this morning, didn't you?(不用mustn't you?/haven't you?

二十二、陈述部分用must(may, might) + have + V-ed表示推测时,若句中没有带明显的过去时间的状语,问句部分动词用现在完成时形式。如:

Everyone must have known the death of the waitress, haven't they? (不用mustn't they?

You must have worked there a year ago, didn't you?(不用mustn't you?/ haven't you?

二十三、陈述部分的主语为从句时,问句部分的主语一般用it代替,如:

What he said is true, isn't it? (不用didn't he?

Where we will build the dam has not been decided yet, has it? (不用won't we?

二十四、陈述部分的主语为动名词或不定式时,问句的主语用it代替。如:

To do one good deed is easy for a person, isn't it?Skating is your favorite sport, isn't it?

练习 单项选择

1.-------Does he like English?

------____________.

A.Yes, he does   B. Yes, he is.  C. No, he isn’t

2.----________does his father do?

-----He’s a doctor.

A. What   B. Who   C. How

3.Would you loke coffee_________tea?

A. and   B. or   C. of

4.Dick has few friends,___________?

A. is he   B. doesn’t  he    C. does  he

四、祈使句

1.定义:祈使句是用来表示请求、命令、劝告或建议等语气的句子。它的主语多是You(通常不说出)。

2.祈使句的用法
  (1)通常表示命令、请求、警告或禁止。

Go and wash your hands.    Be quiet ,please.    No parking!

(2)表示邀请、建议。Have some milk,please.   Let’s go to school.

3. 祈使句构成

(1)肯定结构

 eq \o\ac(,1)1Do型: 动词原形(+宾语)+其他成分。Please have a seat here.

 eq \o\ac(,2)2Be型: 连系动词 + 表语(如:形容词、名词等)Keep quiet!保持安静!
  Be a good student! 要做一名好学生!

 eq \o\ac(,3)3let型:  Let + 宾语 + 动词原形 + 其它。例如:
  Let me have a good rest.让我好好休息一下。

(3)    否定结构

 eq \o\ac(,1)1Do型和Be型的否定形式的构成在句首加上Don’t。例如:
  Don’t go there alone!不要一个人去那里。
  Don’t be late for class again!别再上课迟到。
  eq \o\ac(,2)2由let构成的否定式的祈使句句型为:
  以let引起的祈使句的否定形式,要视其在意思上否定了什么来决定。如否定let,则用Don’t let…向式;如否定let后面的不定式,则在不定式前加not,即用“Let + 宾语 + not+ 动词原形 + 其它。”句式。例如:
  Don’t let the children play football on the road.不要让孩子们在马路上踢球。
  Let’s not wait outside to gate.
  咱们别在门外等。
   eq \o\ac(,3)3有些用no开头,表示禁止。

No smoking !    No fishing!

4.特殊的祈使句
  (1)强调式祈使句

祈使句的主语通常不说出来,但有时为了强调,此时可说出主语you祈使句式的肯定式前加do可起强调作用。意为“务必;一定”等。例如:。例如:
  You feed the animals today.
  今天你喂动物。
  You sweep the floor. 你拖地板。
  Do come,please!请一定来!
  Do tell her the thing.务必告诉她此事。

(2)不含动词的祈使句

One moment,please.   Hands up,please.

练习

1.Please _________,the baby is sleeping.

A.not be so noisy.  B. be quiet  C. mustn’t talk  D. no speaking

2._______to meet me at the station.I’ll be waiting there.

A.Not to forget  B. not forget   C. Forget not  D. Don’t forget

3.--- Don’t forget to come to my birthday party tomorrow.

----I _________.

A. don’t   B. won’t   C. can’t   D. haven’t

4._________Chinese in your English class.

A.Not speak   B. Don’t speak   C. Speak  not    D. Don’t speaking

5._____down the radio.It’s too noisy.

A. Turning   B. To turn   C. Turned   D. Turn

6.Lucy,________the door or someone will come in.

A.close   B. closes    C. not close   D. is closing

7. _________and play football in the street after lunch.

A. let’s not to go  B. let’s not go   C. let’s don’t  go   D. Not let’s go

8. We can see a sign with the words_______” in a bus.

A.Not parking   B. Not smoking   C. No smoking  D. No parking

9._____call me Mimi.It’s my cat’s name.

A. Not    B. Didn’t  C.Doesn’t  D. Don’t

10.________for school!You should get up early.

A. Be late   B.Not be late  C. Don’t be late  D. Be not late

五、感叹句

感叹句一般是用来表示说话时的喜悦、惊讶等情感。英语感叹句常用"what""how"引导,"what""how"与所修饰的词置于句首,其它部分用陈述句语序。
一、 由"what"引导的感叹句:"what"意为"多么"用作定语,修饰名词(被强调部分),单数可数名词前要加不定冠词a/an,复数可数名词或不可数名词前不用冠词。这类句子的结构形式是:
what+(a/an)+adj.+n.+
主语+谓语+(it is).
如:
What a clever girl she is! 多么聪明的姑娘呀!
What an interesting story it is! 多么有趣的故事呀!
What good children they are! 他们是多么好的孩子呀!
What beautiful flowers they are! 多么漂亮的花呀!
What delicious food it is! 多么有味的食物呀!
What heavy snow it is! 多么大的雪呀!
二、由"how"引导的感叹句:"how"意为"多么",用作状语,修饰形容词或副词(被强调部分)。如果修饰形容词,则句中的谓语动词用系动词;如果how修饰副词,则句中的谓语动词用行为动词,这类句子的结构形式是: How+adj.adv.+主语+谓语+(it is).
如:

How cold it is today! 今天多么冷呀!
How nice the pictures are! 多么漂亮的图画呀!
How happy they look! 他们显得多么高兴呀!
How well she sings! 她唱得多好呀!
How hard they are working now! 他们干得多么起劲呀!
三、在表示同一意义时,英语感叹既可用"what"引导,也可用"how"引导。如:
What a hot day it is!
How hot the day is !

多么热的天气呀!
What tall buildings they are!
How tall the buildings are!
多么高的楼房呀!
What bad weather it is!
How bad the weather is!
多么糟糕的天气呀!
What bright sunshine it is!
How bright the sunshine is!
多么明亮的阳光呀!
四、感叹句在表示激动强烈的感情时,口语中常常采用省略句,其后面的主语和谓语往往略去不讲。
如:

What a fine day! 多么晴朗的天呀!
What an honest boy! 多么诚实的孩子呀!
What red apples! 多么红的苹果呀!
How cool! 好凉快呀!
How wonderful! 精彩极了!

练习

单项选择

1._______food you’ve cooked!

A. How a nice  B. What a nice   C. How  nice    D. What  nice 

2. ______ fast he runs!

A.How        B. How a   C. . What   D. . What  a

3. ______beautiful flowers!

A . .How   B. How  a   C. What   D. What  a

4. _______bright girls they are!

A. What   B. What a   C. How   D. How a

5. _____sunny day! Let’s go out for a walk.

A. What   B. What a   C. How   D. How a

6._______day it is! It’s rainy again.

A. How bad  B. What a bad   C. How fine   D. What a fine

7._____weather we have today! 

A.  A fine   B. What a fine    C. How a  fine  D. What  fine

8. _______fromBeijingtoLondon!

A.How long way it is    B. What a long way it is 

C. How long way is it   D. What a long way  is  it

9.______useful work they have done!

A.  What    B. How   C.  What a   D. What an

10. ____nice picture you gave me!

  A.  What    B. How   C.  What a   D. What an

11._______exciting game it is!

A.  What    B. How   C.  How much      D. What an

12. -----_________you have bought me!

------I got it at the market.

A. What a big fish   B.How a big fish  C. What big fish   D. How  big fish

13.---It is reported that an earthquake hitHaitilast night.

-------________terrible news!

A. What   B. What a   C. How   D. How a

14.-------Happy birthday!

-------Thank you. .________nice of you to remember my birthday!

A. That   B. What    C. How    D.What a

15. _______it is today! We’d  better  stay at home.

A . What a bad weather       B. What bad weather  

C. How a bad weather        D. How  bad weather

六、there be句型

1.there be句型概念

there be表示“存在;有”,there be句型也叫存在句,指某人或某物存在于某个特定的位置。其中的be与紧跟其后的名词的形式保持一致,如在一般现在时中there is和单数名词或不可数名词连用 ,there are则与复数名词连用。

There is a pear on the table.

There are many pears in the basket.

2. there be句型的基本结构

There be +主语+地点(时间)状语

提示:there behave都表示“有”,单它们的含义是不同的。there be表示的是“客观存在”而have表示的是“拥有;占有”。There is a new book on the desk.  I have a new book .

3. there be句型主要注意什么?

there be句型中,主语之前常用到a ,some, all,而不用 the, this that等修饰。

There is a dog in the room.( )   There is the  dog in the room.(误)

4. there be句型中谓语动词的“就近原则”

(1)一般情况下,there be句型中谓语动词be 在人称和数上与其后的主语保持一致。若主语是不可数名词或单数可数名词,be iswas; 若主语是复数名词,bearewere.

There is some water in the glass.

There is a book on the desk.

There are some people under the tree.

(2)there be句型中有两个或两个以上主语时,谓语动词be应与邻近的主语在“数”上

保持一致,即“就近原则”。

There is a pen and two pencils in the box.

There are three men and a woman behind the house.

提示:there be句型可以用于各种时态。There was a small house near the river last year.

There will be a fashion show tomorrow.

练习

1.There is some________-on the table.

A. pen   B.   ruler   C. money   D. books

2. There _______three pens and a pencils in the pencil case.

A  is   B. are   C. have   D. has

3.---Is there a book on the desk?

------__________.

A.Yes, it is.   B. Yes, there is  C. No, it isn’t  D . No, isn’t there

4.There is going to _______a football game tomorrow.

A. be  B. have  C. has   D. is

5.There are a lot of people _____for the bus to come.

A. waiting   B. to wait  C. waited  D. is waiting

6. What a pity, my new computer doesn’t work. ________must be something wrong with it.

A. It  B. There  C. This  D. That

7.How many ________a re there in your school?

A. woman teacher  B. women teacher   C. woman teachers  D. women teachers 

8.There ________three new films in the cinema next week.

A.is going to be  B. will have  C. are going to be  D. are going to have

第三节 时态

英语的时态是靠动词的变化的时间状语来表达的。共有16 种,常见的有9种,即

一般现在时:主语+动词原形/第三人称单数
一般过去时:主语+动词的过去分词
一般将来时:主语+shall/will+动词原形
过去将来时:主语+should/would+动词原形
现在进行时:主语+am,is,are)+现在分词
过去进行时:主语+was,were)+现在分词
现在完成进行时:主语+have/has+been+现在分词
现在完成时:主语+have/has+过去分词
过去完成时:主语+had+过去分词
一、一般现在时

一般现在时自述
第一,一般现在时:

 1.表示事物或人物的特征、状态。如:The sky is blue.

 2.表示经常性或习惯性的动作。如:I get up at six every day.3.表示客观现实。如:The earth goes around the sun.

第二,请看我的面目--构成:
1. be
动词:主语+be(am,is,are)+其它。如:
  I am a boy.我是一个男孩。

2.行为动词:主语+行为动词(+其它)。如:
  We study English.我们学习英语。
 当主语为第三人称单数(he, she,it)时,要在动词后加"-s""-es"。如:Mary likes Chinese.玛丽喜欢汉语。
第三,我的变化--否定句、一般疑问句、特殊疑问句:
1. be
动词的变化。
 否定句:主语+ be + not +其它。
 如:He is not a worker.他不是工人。
 一般疑问句:Be +主语+其它。
 如:-Are you a student?
   -Yes. I am. / No, I'm not.
 特殊疑问句:疑问词+一般疑问句。如:Where is my bike?
2.
行为动词的变化。
 否定句:主语+ don't( doesn't ) +动词原形(+其它)。如:
 I don't like bread.
 当主语为第三人称单数时,要用doesn't构成否定句。如:
 He doesn't often play.
 一般疑问句:Do( Does ) +主语+动词原形+其它。如:
 - Do you often play football?
 - Yes, I do. / No, I don't.
 当主语为第三人称单数时,要用does构成一般疑问句。如:
 - Does she go to work by bike?
 - Yes, she does. / No, she doesn't.
 特殊疑问句:疑问词+一般疑问句。如:How does your father go to work?
 一般现在时的用法

■一般现在时表示经常性或习惯性的动作,常与表示频度的时间状语every day, usually, always, often, sometimes, on Sunday等连用。如:

I go to school at 6 every morning. 每天早上我七点去上学。

■一般现在时表示客观存在及普遍真理。如:

Summer follows spring. 春天之后是夏天。

The sun rises in the east. 太阳从东方升起。

注意:此种用法即使出现在过去的语境中,仍用一般现在时。如:

I learned that the earth goes around the sun when I was in primary school. 我在小学就学过地球是围绕太阳转的。

■一般现在时表示格言或警句。如:

Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败。

■一般现在时表示目前的情况或状态。如:

I am a teacher. 我是教师。

Peter writes good Chinese but does not speak well. 彼得汉语写得不错,讲的可不行。

■以here, there等开始的倒装句,表示动作正在进行。如:

Here comes the bus. = The bus is coming. 车来了。

There goes the bell. = The bell is ringing. 铃响了。

■在下列情况下表示将来:

1. 在状语从句中用一般现在时代替一般将来时。如:

I will give it to him as soon as I see him. 我一看见他就交给他。

He will come if you invite him. 如果你请他,他会来的。

Suppose he doesn’t agreewhat shall we do?假如他不同意,那怎么办?

I shall do as I please. 我高兴怎么做就怎么做。

He will continue the work no matter what happens. 不管发生什么情况他都要继续这项工作。

2. 在the morethe more (越……越……) 句型中,前者通常用一般现在时代替一般将来时,因为前者相当于条件状语从句。如:

The harder you study, the better results you will get. 你学习越努力,成绩就会越好。

3. 在make sure (certain) , see to it, mind, care, matter后的宾语从句的谓语动词用一般现在时代替一般将来时。如:

See to it that you are not late again. 注意别再迟到了(from www.hxen.com)

4. 表示按计划或时间表将要发生的动作,通常有表示将来的时间状语。如:

The plane takes off at 11:30 and arrives in Shanghai at l:20. 飞机十一点半起飞,一点二十分抵达上海。

注:只限于少数动词能这样用,如 begin, start, , end, finish, stop, go, come, leave, sail, arrive, return, close, open 等。  

练习

1.—Does Peter like to watch TV?

----________.

A. Yes, he like. B. No, he doesn’t C. Yes, he’d like.  D. No, he likes.

2.She doesn’t _______her homework in the afternoon.

A. doing  B. to do  C. does  D. do

3.--________you usually late for school?

---N o, _______.

A. Do; I am B.Does; not  C. Are; I’m not  D. Are; I aren’t

4. Mr Yang ____English this term.

A. teaches our B. teaches us  C. teachs us D. teach our

5. One of the boys _________a black hat.

A. have  B. there is  C. there are D. has

6.We will go shopping if it ______tomorrow.

A. don’t rain B.won’t rain  C. doesn’t rain  D.isn’t rain

7.He said the sun _______in the east and _______in the west.

A . rises; sets  B.rose; set  C. rises; set  D. rise; sets

二、一般过去时

一般过去时态:表示过去某一时间所发生的动作或存在的状态。谓语动词要用一般过去式。经常与yesterday(昨天), last week(上周), last month(上个月), last year(去年), two months ago(两个月前), the day before yesterday(前天),in 1990 (1990), in those days (在那些日子里)等表示过去的时间状语连用。
如: I was born in 1990. (我出生在1990)
When did you go to the park? (你是什么时候去的公园)。
I went to the park last week. (我是上周去的公园)
在上面的句子中第一句属于be动词的一般过去时态;第二句和第三句属于实义动词的一般过去时态。

1. Be 动词的一般过去时态
在没有实义动词的句子中使用be动词, am is 的过去式为was; are的过去式为were.
构成:肯定句:主语+was (were) +宾语
如:I was late yesterday. (昨天我迟到了。)
否定句:主语+was (were) +not+宾语
如:We weren't late yesterday. (我们昨天没迟到)
疑问句:Was (Were) +主语+宾语
如: Were you ill yesterday? (你昨天病了吗?)
肯定回答: Yes, I was. (是的,我病了。)
否定句: No, I wasn't. (不,我没病。)
特殊疑问句: 特殊疑问词+was (were) +主语+宾语
如:When were you born? 你是什么时候出生的?

2. 实义动词的一般过去时态
肯定句要使用动词的过去式,否定句和疑问句要使用助动词do does 的过去式 did.
肯定句为:主语+动词过去式+宾语
如: I went home at nine o'clock yesterday.(我昨天九点钟回的家。)
否定句:主语+didn't +动词原形+宾语
如:I didn't go home yesterday. (我昨天没回家。)
疑问句:Did +主语+动词原形+宾语
如: Did you go home yesterday? (你昨天回家了吗?)
肯定回答: Yes, I did. (是的,我回了。)
否定回答:No, I didn't. (不,我没回家。)

动词过去式的构成

规则动词的过去式变化如下:

规则动词的过去式变化如下:
1
、一般情况下,动词词尾加 -ed ,如:
work ---worked play---played wanted----wanted act----acted
2
、以不发音的 -e 结尾动词,动词词尾加 -d,如:

live---lived move----moved taste---tasted hope---hoped
3
、以辅音字母 + y结尾的动词,把-y变为-i 再加-ed,如:
study---studied copy---copied cry---cried carry---carried
4
、以一个辅音字母结尾的重读闭音节动词,双写词尾辅音字母,再加 -ed,如:
stop ---stopped
5
、不规则动词的过去式变化规律性不强,须多加记忆。
go – went make – made get – got buy - bought come - came fly-flew
不规则动词的过去式的构成
1
.把动词原形中的i改为a,变成过去式。如:
begin—began
drink—drankgive—gavering—rangsing—sangsit—satswim—swam
2
.把重读开音节中的i改为o,变成过去式。如:
drive—drove
ride—rodewrite—wrote
3
.改动词原形中的aw owew,变成过去式。如:
draw—drew
grow—grewknow—knewthrow—threw(动词show除外,show—showed 4.动词原形中的e改为o,变成过去式。如:
get—got
forget—forgot
5
.动词原形中的ee改为e,变成过去式。如:
feed—fed
meet—met
6
.动词原形中的eep改为ept,变成过去式。如:
keep—kept
sleep—sleptsweep—swept
7
.动词原形中的eak改为oke,变成过去式。如:
break—broke
speak—spoke
8
.动词原形中的ell改为old,变成过去式。如:
sell—sold
tell—told
9
.动词原形中的an改为oo,变成过去式。如:
stand—stood
understand—understood
10
.以oughtaught结尾,且读音是〔 :t〕的过去式。如:
bring—brought
buy— boughtthink—thoughtcatch—caughtteach—taught
11
.以ould结尾且读音为〔ud〕的情态动词过去式。如:
can—could
shall—shouldwill—would
12
.把动词原形中的o改为a,变成过去式。如:
come—came
become—became
13
.在动词原形后加dt变成过去式,并且发生音变。如:
hear
hi —heardh :d〕, saysei—saidsed〕,meanmi:n—meantment
14
.动词的过去式与动词原形一样。如:
let—let
must—mustput—putread—readred
15
.不符合上述规律的动词过去式。如:
am
is—wasare—werebuild—builtdo—dideat—atefall—fellfeel—feltfind—foundfly—flewgo—wenthave has— hadhold—heldleave—leftmake—mademay—mightrun—ransee—sawtake—took

过去式“-ed”的发音规则
1)动词词尾为“td”时,发/ id /音,
want →wanted
(要)need →needed (需要)
2)动词词尾为清辅音时,发/ t / 音。
help →helped
(帮助)laugh →laughed (笑)look →looked (看)
kiss →kissed
(吻)wash →washed (洗) watch →watched (注视)
3)动词词尾为td以外之浊辅音或元音时,发/ d /音。
call →called
(叫)stay→stayed (停留)cry→cried (哭)

练习

1.The teacher____the blackboard yestetday.He used a computer.

a.used not    b.didn't use    c.does not use

2.___you___in the library this morning?

a.DO,studied   b.Did,studied   c.Did,study

3.The students___to have a party.They did it last week.

a.planed   b.planned   c.plan

4.Lily___to the beach with prof .Green .They had a swim there.

a.goed   b.goes   c.went

5.Prof .Green___sick yesterday,He ___a fever .New he still feels weak.

a.is,has   b.was,have   c.was,had

6.___the teacher___at this college last year ?Yes,he did.

a.Did,taught   b.does,teach   c.Did,teach

7.We___in the sea.Thewater was too cold.

a.swam not   b.didn't swim   c.didn't swam

8.___there many trees on the campus?No,but now we have many everywhere.

a.Were   b.Had   c.Did have

9.I like English food now.But I___it very much.

a.didn't liked   b.didn't like   c.don't like

10.Did you___the picnic yesterday ?Yes,we__it very much.

a.enjoy,enjoy   b.enjoyed,enjpyed   c.enjoy,enjoyed

三、一般将来时

1、概念:表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态及打算、计划或准备做某事。

句中一般有以下时间状语:

tomorrow, next day(week, month, year…),soon,

the day after tomorrow(后天)等。
2、基本结构:be going to + do; ②will+ do.
3、否定句:在be动词(am, is, are)后加not或will后加not成 

won’t。

例如:I’m going to have a picnic this afternoon.

→ I’m not going to have a picnic this afternoon.
4、一般疑问句: be或will提到句首,some改为any, and改为or,

 第一二人称互换。

例如:We are going to go on an outing this weekend.

→ Are you going to go on an outing this weekend?
5、对划线部分提问。一般情况,一般将来时的对划线部分有三种情

况。

(1.) 问人。Who

例如:I’m going toNew Yorksoon.

→Who’s going toNew Yorksoon.

(2.) 问干什么。What … do.

例如: My father is going to watch a race with me this afternoon. →What is your father going to do with you this afternoon.

(3.) 问什么时候。When.

例如:She’s going to go to bed at nine.

→When is she going to bed?
6、同义句:be going to = will

I am going to go swimming tomorrow(明天).

= I will go swimming tomorrow.
7、be going to和will 的区别   

be going to和will 的用法虽然都表示将来发生动作或情况,但

它们的用法是有区别的。现本人就牛津小学英语课本归纳、浅析

如下:
(1)be going to主要用于:
    1、表示事先经过考虑、安排好打算要做的事情。E.g.
       What are you going to do today?
       今天你们打算做什么?
       Dad and I are going to see aBeijingopera this afternoon.
       今天下午我和爸爸打算去看京剧。
        I’m going to play the violin.
       我打算拉小提琴。

She’s going to play the piano. 她打算弹钢琴。

(2)、表示根据目前某种迹象判断,某事非常有可能发生。E.g.
Look! There come the dark clouds. It is going to rain.
瞧!乌云密集,天要下雨。
I am afraid I am going to have a cold.
恐怕我要患重感冒。
(2) will主要用于在以下几个方面:
1、表示单纯的未来“将要”通用各个人称。eg:
They will go to visit the factory tomorrow.
明天他们将去工厂参观。
I’ll come with Wang Bing, Liu Tao and Yang Ling.
我将和王兵、刘涛、杨玲一起来。

2、表示不以人的意志为转移的自然发展的未来的事。eg:
Today is Saturday.   Tomorrow will be Sunday.
今天是星期六。明天是(将)是星期日。
He will be thirty years old this time next year.
明年这个时候他就(将)三十岁。
3、问对方是否愿意做某事或表示客气地邀请或命令。eg:
Will you please turn on the radio?    请打开收音机好吗?
Will you go to the zoo with me?  你和我一起去动物园好吗?

练习题

一:选择

1.Mother ________ me a nice present on my next birthday.

A. will gives B. will give     C. gives    D. give

2.He ________ her a beautiful hat on her next birthday.

A. gives B. gave C. will give D. is going   giving

3. He ________ in three days.

A. coming back B. came back C. will come back D. is going to coming back

4. Who ________ ________ swimming with us tomorrow afternoon?

A. will; go B. do; go    C. will; going     D. shall; goes

5. The day after tomorrow they ________ a volleyball match.

A. will watch     B. watches C. is watching    D. to watch

6. They ________ an English evening next Sunday.

A. are having B. are going to have     C. will having     D. is going to have

7. ________ you ________ free next Sunday?

A. Will; are    B. Will; be C. Do; be    D. Are; be

8. He ________ there at ten tomorrow morning.

A. will    B. is     C. will be     D. be

9. I ____ _____ a teacher in the future.

A. will, be B. is, be C. is, being D. will, is

10.They ____ _____ to the park next Sunday.

A. will goes B. will go C. is going D. will go

11.My family ____ _____ to church next weekend.

A. will go     B. goes C. will going D. is going

12.My mother will ____ me a pencil tonight.

A. gives B. giving C. give

13.He ______ play football tomorrow.

A. will     B. is C. be

14.My grandpa and grandma ____ ____ to see us in two days.

A. will coming B. will come C. is coming D. are coming

15.She ___ ____ TV this evening.

A. wills watch B. will watching C. is watching D. will watch

16.My grandpa ____ _____ at home the day after tomorrow.

A. will stay B. wills stay C. will stays D. is staying

17.Mom will _____ back soon.

A. comes B. coming C. comes D. come

18.---Let’s go out to play football,shall we?

---OK. I_______.

A.. will coming   B. be going to come   C. come   D. am coming

19----Where is my watch?

.---I_________it for you.

A.get  B.am geeting  C. to get  D. will get

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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