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发表于:2014-12-03 13:31 [只看楼主] [划词开启]
《新概念英语》第四册第41课 Training elephants 训练大象





First listen and then answer the following question.
At what point does the training of a captive wild elephant begin?

Two main techniques have been used for training elephants, which we may call respectively the tough and the gentle. The former method simply consists of setting an elephant to work and beating him until he does what is expected of him. Apart from any moral considerations this is a stupid method of training, for it produces a resentful animal who at a later stage may well turn man-killer. The gentle method requires more patience in the early stages, but produces a cheerful, good-tempered elephant who will give many years of loyal service.
The first essential in elephant training is to assign to the animal a single mahout who will be entirely responsible for the job. Elephants like to have one master just as dogs do, and are capable of a considerable degree of personal affection. There are even stories of half-trained elephant calves who have refused to feed and pined to death when by some unavoidable circumstance they have been deprived of their own trainer. Such extreme cases must probably be taken with a grain of salt, but they dounderline the general principle that the relationship between elephant and mahout is the key to successful training. 
The most economical age to capture an elephant for training is between fifteen and twenty years, for it is then almost ready to undertake heavy work and can begin to earn its keep straight away. But animals of this age do not easily become subservient to man, and a very firm hand must be employed in the early stages. The captive elephant, still roped to a tree, plunges and screams every time a man approaches, and for several days will probably refuse all food through anger and fear. Sometimes a tame elephant is tethered nearby to give the wild one confidence, and in most cases the captive gradually quietens down and begins to accept its food. The next stage is to get the elephant to the training establishment, a ticklish business which is achieved with the aid of two tame elephants roped to the captive on either side.
When several elephants are being trained at one time, it is customary for the new arrival to be placed between the stalls of two captives whose training is already well advanced. It is then left completely undisturbed with plenty of food and water so that it can absorb the atmosphere of its new home and see that nothing particularly alarming is happening to its companions. When it is eating normally, its own training begins. The trainer stands in front of the elephant holding a long stick with a sharp metal point. Two assistants, mounted on tame elephants, control the captive from either side, while others rub their hands over his skin to the accompaniment of a monotonous and soothing chant. This is supposed to induce pleasurable sensations in the elephant, and its effects are reinforced by the use of endearing epithets. such as'ho! my son', or 'ho! my father', or 'my mother', according to the age and sex of the captive. The elephant is not immediately susceptible to such blandishments, however, and usually lashes fiercely with its trunk in all directions. These movements are controlled by the trainer with the metal-pointed stick, and the trunk eventually becomes so sore that the elephant curls it up and seldom afterwards uses it for offensive purposes.


【New words and expressions 生词和短语】
technique n. 技术
tough adj. 强硬的
resentful adj. 忿恨不满的
assign v. 分配,指派
mahout n. 驯象人 
calf n. 幼仔 
pine v. 消瘦 
underline v. 着重说明,强调
keep n. 生计 
subservient adj. 屈从的
plunge v. 向前冲
tame adj. 养驯服了的
tether v. (用绳)拴
ticklish adj. 难对付的,棘手的
alarming adj. 引起惊恐的
accompaniment n. 伴奏 
soothe v. 镇定
chant n. 单调的歌
reinforce v. 加强 
endearing adj.惹人喜爱的
epithet n. 称呼 
susceptible adj. 易受感动的
blandishment n. 奉承
lash v. 猛烈地甩
curl v. 使卷曲 

1.the tough 强硬法
the gentle 温柔法

2.resentful adj.愤懑不满的
例句:Some Americans are resentful, so they must find an opportunity to vent their anger.

3.pine to death 消瘦至死
pine v.
例句:He pined away after his daughter died.
例句:Alone,a lonely stranger in a foreign land,I pine for kinsfolk doubly on a holiday.

4.by some unavoidable circumstance 由于某些不可避免的情况

5.deprive of 剥夺, 使失去 ... (权利)
例句:If you don't drive carefully, I shall be obliged to deprive you of your license.
Too many trees round a house deprive it of light and air.
6.with a grain of salt 有保留地

7.underline v.着重说明,强调
例句:Strikes by prison officers underline the need for reform in our gaols.
Those words are underlined in the English book.

8.subservient adj.屈从的
例句:People shall not be regarded as subservient to the economic system.

9.a very firm hand 一个强有力的人

10.quiet down
例句:He was very angry, but he has quieted down now.

11.ticklish adj. 难对付的, 易怒的, 怕痒的
例句:A ticklish matter.

12.with the aid of 在......帮助下

13.customary adj. 习惯的, 惯例的
例句:That's his customary shortcoming.
It's customary to give people gifts on their birthdays.
For once, she lost/dropped her customary reserve and became quite lively.


点击查看大图usual, customary, habitual, conventional, regular 这些形容词均有“通常的,惯常的”之意。
usual: 普通用词,概念广泛。指经常发生或意料中的事,既可指自然发生的现象,也可指按个人习惯或惯例而做的事。
: 指特定的个人或群体的平常习惯,或习俗性的行为。
habitual: 指按个人习惯反复发生的事情。侧重经常性、习惯性。
conventional: 语气强,指遵守已成习惯的事情,强调符合惯例,由人们普遍认可。
regular: 着重遵守约定俗成的规则。

14.This is supposed to 据说......
例句:This is supposed to be an off season for vegetables but you seem to have enough 
按说现在是蔬菜的淡季, 可是你们这里供应还不错。

15.susceptible adj.易受感动的
例句:Children are more susceptible than adults.
He's so susceptible that she easily gained his affection.

1. 我们为大家提供了两种主流英语发音的音频,请大家下载自己喜欢的一种,放到MP3里反复听!(刚开始练习英语听力和口语最好选定一种学习,不要英音美音混淆哦!)
*注:[按部就班 攻克英魔]学习团成员及自主学习团成员 必须在本帖提交朗读音频哦!
2. 背诵、并默写今天的课文。实在没有时间的同学就抄写一遍吧。(论坛互动学习本期推出在线录音,希望大家多多开口,我会帮大家做点评,可能偶尔会稍有点儿晚,还请见谅哈)

3. 用今天学到的单词或句型造句一个。
deprive of
This is supposed to
分类: 语法词汇
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