《新概念英语》(第四册)第42课

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发表于:2014-12-03 13:33 [只看楼主] [划词开启]
《新概念英语》第四册第42课 Recording an earthquake 记录地震

【英音课文朗读】

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【课文】 
First listen and then answer the following question.
听录音,然后回答以下问题。
What does a pen have to do to record on paper the vibrations generated by an earthquake?

An earthquake comes like a thief in the night, without warning. It was necessary, therefore, to invent instruments that neither slumbered nor slept. Some devices were quite simple. One, for instance, consisted of rods of various lengths and thicknesses which would stand up on end like ninepins. When a shock came, it shook the rigid table upon which these stood. If it were gentle, only the more unstable rods fell. If it were severe, they all fell. Thus the rods, by falling, and by the direction in which they fell, recorded for the slumbering scientist the strength of a shock that was too weak to waken him, and the direction from which it came.
But instruments far more deliecate than that were needed if any really serious advance was to be made.The ideal to be aimed at was to devise an instrument that could record with a pen on paper, the movements of the ground or of the table as the quake passed by. While I write my pen moves, but the paper keeps still. With practice, no doubt, I could in time learn to write by holding the pen still while the paper moved. That sounds a silly suggestion, but that was precisely the idea adopted in some of the early instruments (seismometers) for recording earthquake waves. But when table, penholder and paper are all moving, how is it possible to write legibly? The key to a solution of that problem lay in an everyday observation. Why does a person standing in a bus or train tend to fall when a sudden start is made? It is because his feet move on , but his head stays still. A simple experiment will help us a little further. Tie a heavy weight at the end of a long piece of string. With the hand held high in the air, hold the string so that the weight nearly touches the ground. Now move the hand to and fro and around but not up and down. It will be found that the weight moves but slightly or not at all. Imagine a pen attached to the weight in such a way that its point rests upon a piece of paper on the floor. Imagine an earthquake shock shaking the floor, the paper, you and your hand. In the midst of all this movement, the weight and the pen would be still. But as the paper moved from side to side under the pen point, its movement would be recorded in ink upon its surface. It was upon this principle that the first instruments were made, but the paper was wrapped round a drum which rotated slowly. As long as all was still, the pen drew a straight line, but while the drum was being shaken, the line that the pen was drawingwriggled from side to side. The apparatus thus described, however, records only the horizontal component of the wave movement, which is, in fact, much more complicated. If we could actually see the path described by a particle, such as a sand grain in the rock, it would be more like that of a bluebottle path described by a particle, such as a sand grain in the rock, it would be more like that of a bluebottle buzzing round the room; it would be up and down, to and fro and from side to side. Instruments have been devised and can be so placed that all three elements can be recorded in different graphs.
When the instrument is situated at more than 700 miles from the earthquake centre, the graphic record shows three waves arriving one after the other at short intervals. The first records the arrival of longitudinal vibrations. The second marks the arrival of transverse vibrations which travel more slowly and arrive several minutes after the first. These two have travelled through the earth. It was from the study of these that so much was learnt about the interior of the earth. The third, or main wave, is the slowest and has travelled round the earth through the surface rocks.
H.H,SWINNERTON The Earth beneath Us

【参考译文】 
-----------以下内容回复可见-----------


【New words and expressions 生词和短语】
earthquake n. 地震
slumber v. 睡眠
ninepin n. 九柱戏中的木柱
rigid adj. 坚硬的
delicate adj. 灵感的
seismometer n. 地震仪
penholder n. 笔杆
legibly adv. 字迹清楚地
drum n. 鼓状物
wriggle v. 扭动
bluebottle n. 绿头苍蝇
graph n. 图表 
graphic adj. 图示的
longitudinal adj. 纵向的
transverse adj. 横向的 

【课文注释】
1.slumber v.睡眠
例句:She fell into restful slumber.
她进入宁静的安眠之中。
Allow no sleep to your eyes, no slumber to your eyelids.

不要容你的眼睛睡觉,不要容你的眼皮打盹。


【词义辨析】
点击查看大图sleep, doze, nap, slumber 这些动词均含“睡”之意。
sleep : 普通用词,指一般的睡眠。可用作引申指长眠或静止不动。
doze : 多用于口语中,指轻微的小睡或处于半睡状态。
nap : 指白天的小睡。
slumber : 多指人安详地或长时间地睡。

2. stand up on end 竖立着

3.rigid adj.坚硬的;刻板的
例句:The tent has a rigid support.
帐篷有一个坚硬的支柱。
He's very rigid in his ideas.

他的想法非常固执。


【词义辨析】
点击查看大图rigid, strict, rigorous这些形容词均含“刻板的,严格的”之意。
rigid: 指没有灵活性、机动性。
strict: 指在行为规则上要求严格。
rigorous: 侧重指严格到毫不宽容的地步。

4.The ideal to be aimed at 理想的目标

5.devise vt. 设计, 发明, 遗赠
例句:This time we'll devise a better solution.
这次我们将设计一种新的解决方案。
He devised a new type of transistor.

他发明了一种新的晶体管。


【词义辨析】
点击查看大图devise, conceive, formulate 这些动词的均含“设计、设想”之意。
devise: 侧重设计的临时性和权宜性,并隐含有更多的设想可用。
conceive: 强调在制定计划之前的先有设想构思。
formulate: 与conceive相反,指在devise之后的具体设计活动。

6.I could in time 我最终能够......

7.legibly adv.字迹清楚地
例句:He can write as neatly and legibly as the next person if he takes his time over it.
若他不匆匆忙忙写的话,他能写得和别人一样整洁、清楚。

8.help us a little further 帮助我们进一步搞清这个问题

9.With the hand held high in the air, hold the string 这是一个祈使句,谓语动词是hold, with the hand held high in the air是介词短语作方式状语。

10.to and fro 往复, 来来回回

11.rotate v. 轮流, (使)旋转
例句:He rotates the handle gently.
他轻轻地转动手柄。
The post of chairman rotates among members of the committee.

主席一职由委员会的成员轮流担任。


【词义辨析】
点击查看大图rotate, revolve, roll, spin, turn, whirl, circle 这些动词均有“转动、旋转”之意。
rotate: 侧重指物体围绕自己的轴或中心旋转,即自转。
revolve: 强调指物体围绕本身以外的中心旋转,即公转。
roll: 指某物在平面上滚动或翻滚。
spin: 指沿内轴迅速而连续旋转,或沿外部一个点作快速圆周运转。
turn: 普通用词,中性,含义广泛,根据搭配,可指作一个圆周运动或连续地作圆周运动,也可指仅是沿圆的弧形转动。
whirl: 指旋转或作圆周运动,侧重急速或力量。
circle: 指作圆周运动。

12.wriggle v.扭动
例句:I can't brush your hair if you keep wriggling all the time.
你要是一直扭来扭去,我就没法给你梳头了。
He had to wriggle his way out.
他得扭著身子才钻了出来。

13.vibration n.颤动;振动;摇动
例句:Even at full speed the ship's engines cause very little vibration. 
这条船即使全速前进,发动机的震动也很小。

【作业时间】 
1. 我们为大家提供了两种主流英语发音的音频,请大家下载自己喜欢的一种,放到MP3里反复听!(刚开始练习英语听力和口语最好选定一种学习,不要英音美音混淆哦!)
*注:[按部就班 攻克英魔]学习团成员及自主学习团成员 必须在本帖提交朗读音频哦!
2. 背诵、并默写今天的课文。实在没有时间的同学就抄写一遍吧。(论坛互动学习本期推出在线录音,希望大家多多开口,我会帮大家做点评,可能偶尔会稍有点儿晚,还请见谅哈)

3. 用今天学到的单词或句型造句一个。
devise
rotate
wriggle
分类: 语法词汇
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