2014.12.04【英译中】网瘾真的存在吗?(三)36句

发表于:2014-12-04 10:48 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

As far back as 1997, before the days of ubiquitous smartphones and laptops, when dial-up and AOL dominated the landscape, psychologists were already testing the “addictive potential” of the World Wide Web. Even then, certain people were exhibiting the same kinds of symptoms that appeared with other addictions: trouble at work, social isolation, and the inability to cut back. And, to the extent that there was something that people referred to as an addiction, it appeared to be to the medium itself—the feeling of connectedness to something—rather than to an activity that could be accomplished via that medium.

早在1997年,在智能手机和笔记本电脑被普遍使用以前,当拨号上网和美国在线服务公司主宰着网络远景的时候,心理学家已经开始测试万维网引起的“上瘾可能性”。甚至当时,某些人已显示出其它上瘾者才有的同类症状:工作中出麻烦、社交隔离、而且无法减少上网。并且,就人们对某事物上瘾的程度,似乎是对媒介本身——与某事物相连接的感觉——而不是对通过媒介完成的活动。


By 2008, the worry about Internet addiction progressed to such a point that The American Journal of Psychiatry published an editorial strongly suggesting that Internet Addiction be included in the next, and fifth, version of the so-called bible of psychiatry, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM). A decade of research, wrote the psychiatrist Jerald Block, had only proven what the 1997 study had suspected, that the Internet could inspire the same patterns of excessive usage, withdrawal, tolerance, and negative repercussions as more traditional substance use. What’s more, Block concluded, “Internet addiction is resistant to treatment, entails significant risks, and has high relapse rates.” It was a disease that needed treatment as much as any other disease did.

2008年,对因特网上瘾的担忧不断升级,以至于美国精神病学杂志发表社论强烈建议因特网上瘾应列入下一版,即第5版,所谓的精神病学圣经:诊断与统计手册(DSM)。精神病学家杰拉德·布洛克写到,十多年来的研究只是证实了1997年研究的猜想,即因特网和许多传统事物一样,会引起过度使用、孤僻、耐受性、和负面影响。布洛克总结说,更重要的是,“因特网上瘾者对抗治疗,必然带来更大风险,而且具有很高的复发率。”网瘾是一种疾病,和任何其它疾病一样需要治疗。


The realization that the Internet may be inducing some addictive-seeming behaviors in its own right has only grown more widespread. One study, published in 2012, of nearly twelve thousand adolescents in eleven European countries, found a 4.4 per cent prevalence of what the authors termed “pathological Internet use” or using the Internet in a way that affected subjects’ health and life. That is, through a combination of excessive time spent online and that time interfering with necessary social and professional activities, Internet use would result in either mental distress or clinical impairment, akin to the type of inability to function associated with pathological gambling. For maladaptive Internet use—a milder condition characterized by problematic but not yet fully disruptive behavior—the number was 13.5 per cent. People who exhibited problematic use were also more likely to suffer from other psychological problems, such as depression, anxiety, A.D.H.D., and O.C.D.

因特网可能诱发一些类似上瘾行为的意识,刚开始变得普及。发表于2012年的一项研究发现,在欧洲11国的12000名青少年中,作者名为“病理性因特网使用”或使用因特网影响到受试者健康和生活的病患率为4.4%。由此可见,通过花过多时间上网以及这些时间干扰了必要的社交和专业活动结合的方式,网络使用会导致精神痛苦或临床损伤,类似与病态赌博有关的功能障碍。因特网不良使用——一种较轻微的情况,特征是行为有问题但不是完全的行为扰乱——这一比例是13.5%。有不良使用问题的人群也更容易遭受其它心里问题,诸如:沮丧、焦虑、注意力缺陷多动障碍、和过度强迫症。


Internet addiction ultimately did not make the list of officially recognized behavioral addictions in DSM-V, but compulsive gambling did. It had taken gambling several decades of extensive research to make the cut, and there simply wasn’t enough systematic, longitudinal data about Internet addiction. But, to Potenza, Block’s conclusions rang true. Sue wasn’t the first patient that he’d seen for whom the Internet was causing substantial, escalating problems; that number had been rising slowly over the last few years, and his colleagues were reporting the same uptick.

互联网上瘾最终并未列入精神疾病诊断与统计手册中官方认可的成瘾行为,但沉迷性赌博在列。将赌博列入手册曾花费了数十年的广泛研究,而对于互联网上瘾只是没有足够的系统的、纵向的数据。但对波坦扎来说,布洛克的结论是正确的。苏不是他见到的第一例互联网引发实质性日益严重问题的患者;这一数字在过去的几年中一直慢慢增加,并且他的同行们也一直报告有同样的增长。
分类: 英语

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