2014.12.4【英译中】二维艺术的形状错觉(二)Two-Dimensional Illusion of Form (2)

翼lieen (猫猫熊) 译坛新宠
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发表于:2014-12-04 14:05 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

Another set of devices—shading and modeling of contours—brings out a sense of spatial depth. In the elegantly understated Ingres figure study just the slightest indication of shading within the primary contours develops a full-bodied illusion of form, for we understand that the shaded areas exist behind contours which block the light. Curving lines of bracelet modeling, such as those on the womans left leg, suggest that the form is also fully rounded on the side we cannot see. In areas such as the heads, where bracelet modeling is not added, the figures read more like reliefs than fully rounded forms.

二维作品塑造三维错觉的其他方法——轮廓的描影和建模——给人空间深度的感觉。这幅由安格尔创作的人像习作非常素雅,艺术家在大体轮廓里运用极轻柔的阴影暗示就塑造了全身的立体效果错觉,因为我们知道当身体轮廓挡住光线,在它旁边就会产生阴影。手镯模的曲线暗示形体在我们看不到的那面也是丰满浑圆的,例如画中女子的左腿。而在没有画上手镯模的地方,例如头像,人物看上去更像浮雕,而不是全维的立体造型。

Another device for giving a two-dimensional surface the appearance of three-dimensional forms is to show more than one side of a form, indicating how it recedes into the distance. If we see only the front wall of a building, we have no idea of the buildings depth in space.

另一种赋予二维作品三维视觉效果的方法是展示某一形状的多个面,显示它是如何逐渐在远处收缩的。如果我们只看到一座建筑的正面,我们不会知道它在空间上的深度。

 

But if an artist depicts the building from an angle that allows us to see one of the sides as well as the front, we immediately grasp the idea of its form. Paul Cezanne studied nature—and human perceptions of natural objects—with great care to determine how we see them and therefore how a painter might truthfully represent the optical sensations. In Mont Sainte-Victoire seen from Les Lauves, a complex array of buildings, trees, and facets of the mountain he so often painted are reduced to abstract geometric structures. Some are painted in clear linear perspective, with sides angling back toward the horizon. (The topic of linear perspective is covered in depth later in this chapter in the discussion of Space.) Others are brushstroked suggestions of geometric form. In letters to an art student, Cezanne advised:

但如果艺术家从某个角度描绘这座建筑,我们不仅看到正面,还看到一个侧面,我们立刻就会产生关于它的形状的印象。保罗塞尚深入研究自然——以及人观察自然物体的视角——以此判断我们是怎样看这些物体,一个画家如何真实反映这种视觉感受。在《从雷罗威小镇看圣维多利亚山》中,他经常描画的房屋,树,多面山体所构成的复杂组合被简化成抽象的几何结构。有的被清楚地画成线性视角,边缘朝向天际线(本章下文讨论“空间”时会对线性视角深入分析)。其他部分是用笔刷涂抹出几何形状。塞尚在给学生的一封信里建议道:

To achieve progress nature alone counts, and the eye is trained through contact with herIn an orange, an apple, a bowl, a head, there is a culmination point; and point is always—in  spite of the tremendous effect of light and shade and colorful sensations—the closest to our eye; the edges of the objects recede to a center on our horizonTreat nature by the cylinder, the sphere, the cone, everything in proper perspective so that each side of an object or a plane is directed toward a central point.

为如实描绘自然取得进步,眼睛在与她接触的过程中得到训练……一个橘子,一个苹果,一只碗,一个头像,都有一个高峰点。尽管光线,阴影,观感会产生巨大影响,但这个点永远是离我们眼睛最近的那一点。物体的边缘在我们的视野中退到中间位置——把自然看做柱体、球体、椎体、任何具有完整视角的物体,这样一个物体或平面的每一面都会指向一个中心点。

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