totorosuki (桜)
86 13 0
发表于:2014-12-05 20:45 [只看楼主] [划词开启]
《新概念英语》第四册第44课 Patterns of culture 文化的模式





First listen and then answer the following question.
What influences us from the moment of birth?

Custom has not commonly been regarded as a subject of any great moment. The inner workings of our own brains we feel to be uniquely worthy of investigation, but custom, we have a way of thinking, is behaviour at its most commonplace. As a matter of fact, it is the other way around. Traditional custom, taken the world over, is a mass of detailed behaviour more astonishing than what any one person can ever evolve in individual actions, no matter how aberrant. Yet that is a rather trivial aspect of the matter. The fact of first-rate importance is the predominant role that custom plays in experience and in belief, and the very great varieties it may manifest.
No man ever looks at the world with pristine eyes. He sees it edited by a definite set of customs and institutions and ways of thinking. Even in his philosophical probing he cannot go behind these stereotypeshis very concepts of the true and the false will still have reference to his particular traditional customs. John Dewey has said in all seriousness that the part played by custom in shaping the behaviour of the individual, as against any way in which he can affect traditional custom, is as the proportion of the total vocabulary of his mother tongue against those words of his own baby talk that are taken up into the vernacular of his family. When one seriously studies the social orders that have had the opportunity to develop autonomously, the figure becomes no more than an exact and matter-of-fact observation. The life history of the individual is first and foremost an accommodation to the patterns and standards traditionally handed down in his community. From the moment of his birth, the customs into which he is born shape his experience and behaviour. By the time he can talk, he is the little creature of his culture, and by the time he is grown and able to take part in its activities, its habits are his habits, its beliefs his beliefs, its impossibilities his impossibilities. Every child that is born into his group will share them with him, and no child born into one on the opposite side of the globe can ever achievethe thousandth part. There is no social problem it is more incumbent upon us to understand than this of the role of custom. Until we are intelligent as to its laws and varieties, the main complicating facts of human life must remain unintelligible.
The study of custom can be profitable only after certain preliminary propositions have been accepted, and some of these propositions have been violently opposed. In the first place, any scientific study requires that there be no preferential weighting of one or another of the items in the series it selects for its consideration. In all the less controversial fields, like the study of cacti or termites or the mature of nebulae, the necessary method of study is to group the relevant material and to take note of all possible variant forms and conditions. In this way, we have learned all that we know of the laws of astronomy, or of the habits of the social insects, let us say. It is only in the study of man himself that the major social sciences have substituted the study of one local variation, that of Western civilization.
Anthropology was by definition impossible, as long as these distinctions between ourselves and the primitive, ourselves and the barbarian, ourselves and the pagan, held sway over people's minds. It was necessary first to arrive at that degree of sophistication where we no longer set our own belief against our neighbour's superstition. It was necessary to recognize that these institutions which are based on the same premises, let us say the supernatural, must be considered together, our own among the rest.
RUTH BENEDICT Patterns of Culture 


【New words and expressions 生词和短语】
commonplace adj. 平凡的
aberrant adj. 脱离常轨的,异常的
trivial adj. 微不足道的,琐细的
predominant adj. 占优势的,起支配作用的
manifest v. 表明
pristine adj. 纯洁的,质朴的
stereotype n. 陈规
vernacular n. 方言
accommodation n. 适应
incumbent adj. 义不容辞的,有责任的
preliminary adj. 初步的
proposition n. 主张
preferrential adj. 优先的
controversial adj. 引起争论的
cactus n. 仙人掌
termite n. 白蚁 
nebula adj. 星云
variant n. 不同的
barbarian n. 野蛮人
pagan n. 异教徒
sophistication n. 老练
premise n. 前提 
supernatural adj. 超自然的

1.The inner workings of our own brains 这一部分是feel的宾语,为了强调而把宾语提前了,to be uniquely worthy of investigation 是宾语补足语。

adj. 平凡的
例句:Poets interpret the commonplace freshly.
He was an unambitious man destined for a commonplace job.
n. 常事, 老生常谈, 普通的东西
例句:Soon it will be commonplace for men to travel to the moon.
What he has said is a mere commonplace.
Ms Reza's notes also record his more commonplace traits.

3.the other way around 正好相反

4.taken the world over 是过去分词短语,做traditional custom的定语,taken前省略了it is, 意为:被全世界所接受的。

5.trivial adj. 不重要的,琐碎的
例句:It's a trivial matter and not worth fighting about.
He could remember every trivial incident in great detail.

6.predominant adj. 主要的, 占优势的, 显著的
例句:The predominant feature of his character was pride.
Which country is the predominant member of the alliance?


点击查看大图dominant, predominant, sovereign 这些形容词均含有“占优势的,支配其它的”之意。
dominant: 强调权威。
predominant: 侧重指影响与新近的优势。
sovereign: 侧重指其他事物都从属于或低于它的。

7.manifest vt. 显示, 证实, 表露
例句:His generosity manifests itself in times of difficulties.
No one can manifest the truth of his statement.
The contradiction manifested itself in the employment situation.

8.go behind these stereotypes 摆脱这些旧框框

9. his very concepts 其中的very是形容词,用于加强语气。

10.have reference to 参照......,与......有关

11.as against ...is as...against 意为:与......相比较就如同......与......相比。

12.be taken up into 被接纳进

13.autonomously adv.自治地,自律地

14.first and foremost 首先
例句:In spite of her recent election success, she remains first and foremost a writer, 
not a politician. 
First and foremost, I think you should work harder on your biology.
15.the thousandth part 等于the thousandth part of the customs。

16.incumbent adj. 负有义务的, 有责任的
例句:It is incumbent on me to reclaim him.
I think it's incumbent upon us to support him.

17.let us say 譬如说

1. 我们为大家提供了两种主流英语发音的音频,请大家下载自己喜欢的一种,放到MP3里反复听!(刚开始练习英语听力和口语最好选定一种学习,不要英音美音混淆哦!)
*注:[按部就班 攻克英魔]学习团成员及自主学习团成员 必须在本帖提交朗读音频哦!
2. 背诵、并默写今天的课文。实在没有时间的同学就抄写一遍吧。(论坛互动学习本期推出在线录音,希望大家多多开口,我会帮大家做点评,可能偶尔会稍有点儿晚,还请见谅哈)

3. 用今天学到的单词或句型造句一个。
first and foremost
分类: 语法词汇
全部回复 (13) 回复 反向排序

  • 0


  • 收藏

  • 扫一扫分享朋友圈


  • 分享





  • 时态
  • 从句
  • 非谓语
  • 词汇
  • 其他