使役动词用法全解

发表于:2014-12-06 21:54 [只看楼主] [划词开启]
使役动词 
1.使役动词是表示使、令、让、帮、叫等意义的不完全及物动词,主要有leave.get.keep.make(使,令), let(让), help(帮助), have(有;让;从事;允许;拿)等。 
2.使役动词后接受词,再接原形不定词作受词补语。 
接宾语时,人称代词用宾格。 
He made me(宾格) laugh. 他使我发笑。 
I let him go. 我让他走开。 
I helped him repair the car. 我帮他修理汽车。 
Please have him come here.请叫他到这里来。 
3.使役动词还可以接过去分词作受词补语。 
I have my hair cut every month. 我每个月理发。 
4.使役动词的被动语态的受词补语用不定词,不用原形不定词。 
(主)He made me laugh. 他使我笑了。 
(被)I was made to laugh by him. 我被他逗笑了。 
使役动词有以下用法: 
a. have somebody do sth让某人去做某事 
I had him arrange for a car. 
b. have somebody doing sth.让某人持续做某事。 
He had us laughing all through lunch. 
注意:用于否定名时,表示“允许” 
i won't have you running around in the house. 
我不允许你在家里到处乱跑。 
******** 
小议“使役动词”的用法 
1. have sb do 让某人干某事 e.g:What would you have me do? 
have sb/sth doing 让某人或某事处于某种状态,听任 
e.g: I won't have women working in our company. 
The two cheats had the light burning all night long. 
have sth done 让别人干某事,遭受到 
e.g:you 'd better have your teeth pulled out. 
He had his pocket picked. 
notes: "done"这个动作不是主语发出来的。 
2.make sb do sth 让某人干某事 e.g:They made me repeat the story. 
What makes the grass grow? notes: I was made to repeat the story. 
make sb/sth done/adj./n e.g. The news made him happy. 
He couldn't make himself heard above the noise of the traffic. 
His actions made him universally respected. 
He made her his wife. 
3.get sb to do 使某人干某事 
e.g: I can't get anyone to do the work properly. 
get sth done 让别人干某事 e.g: I must get my hair cut. 
Can you get the work finished in time? 
4.leave sb to do sth 让某人干某事 e.g: We left him to paint the gate. 
I'll leave you to settle all the business. 
leave sb doing 让继续处于某种状态 
e.g: Don't leave her waiting outside in the rain. 
We left him painting the gate. leave sth done/adj./prep.phrase 
e.g:Please excuse me if I have left any of your questions unanswered. 
His illness has left him weak. I was left with a ray of hope. 
******** 
使役性动词(Causative Verb) 
1.make /have/ let +sb +do sth. 2.get/set/leave + sb to do/doing sth.
不完全及物动词 
1.不完全及物动词是除要有受词外,还需要受词补语以补足其意义的及物动词。
【参见与格动词,完全及物动词】
2.由不完全及物动词构成的句型一般为:主词+不完全及物动词+受词+受词补语。
His mother named him Tommy. 他母亲叫他汤米。
Tommy是受词补语,若没有这个字,这句话的意思就不完整,因此named是不完全及物动词。
不完全不及物动词其实就是联系动词,虽有意义,但不完全,需要加名词、形容词、代名词等作主词补语以 补足其意义。
联系动词按其含义可以分为二类。类型1:表示状态和状态的持续,如:
be(是), seem(似乎), look(看起来), appear(似乎), feel(觉得), sound(听起来), smell(闻起来), taste(尝起 来), keep(保持), remain(保持), stand(站立), lie(躺), stay(停留)等。
类型2:表示从一种状态转变为另一种状态,如:become(变成), go(变得), get(变得), turn(变成), grow(变成), fall(变成某种状态), come(成为), run(变成) 等。
值得注意的是:联系动词没有被动式。
及物动词和不及物动词的用法比较
1)及物动词 后面必须跟宾语意义才完整的实义动词,叫做及物动词(transitive verb)。如:I believe that the committee will consider our suggestion.我相信委员会将会考虑我们的建议。
“How long can I keep the book ?”Harry asked.哈里问:“这本书我可以借多久?”
Dr. Bethune set us a good example. 白求恩大夫给我们树立了好榜样。
Crude oil contains many useful substances.原油含有许多有用的物质。
2)不及物动词 本身意义完整后面不须跟宾语的实义动词,叫做不及物动词(intransitive verb)。如:
Birds fly.鸟会飞。It happened in June 1932.这件事发生于一九三;年六月。
My watch stopped.我的表停了。
She spoke at the meeting yesterday evening. 她在昨天晚上的会上发了言。
3)兼作及物动词和不及物动词 英语里有不少实义动词可以兼作及物动词和不及物动词。这样的动词又有两种不同的情况:
a)兼作及物动词和不及物动词时,意义不变。试比较:
Shall I begin at once?我可以立刻开始吗?(begin作不及物动词)
She began working as a librarian after she left school.她毕业后当图书馆管理员。(began作及物动词)
When did they leave Chicago?他们是什么时候离开芝加哥的?(leave 作及物动词)
They left last week. 他们是上周离开的。(left 作不及物动词)
b)兼作及物动词和不及物动词时,有时意义不尽相同。如:
Wash your hands before meals.饭前要洗手。
Does this cloth wash well? 这布经得起洗吗?
4) 与汉语的比较 有时英语动词的及物和不及物的用法,与汉语的用法不一样,请注意下列两种情况:
a)有的动词在英语里只能用作不及物动词,而汉语则可用作及物动词,如arrive到达,agree同意,1isten听。英语里这些动词后面常接介词。如:
We arrived at the railway station at noon.我们于中午到达火车站。(at不能省去)(比较:We reached the railway station at noon.)
Everybody listened to the lecture with great interest.每个人都很有兴趣地听讲课。(to不可省去)(比较:We all heard the lecture.)
Do they agree to the plan?他们同意这个计划吗?(to不可省去)
b)有的动词在英语里能用作及物动词,而在汉语里则不能用作及物动词,如serve为…服务。
Our children are taught to serve the people wholeheartedly.我们的儿童被教以全心全意为人民服务

分类: 英语

  • 0

    点赞

  • 收藏

  • 扫一扫分享朋友圈

    二维码

  • 分享

课程推荐

需要先加入社团哦

编辑标签

最多可添加10个标签,不同标签用英文逗号分开

保存

编辑官方标签

最多可添加10个官方标签,不同标签用英文逗号分开

保存
知道了

复制到我的社团