2015.01.30 【英译中】现代金融业务.16(812)

tsepinghan (哈比) 译心译意
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发表于:2015-01-30 21:35 [只看楼主] [划词开启]
b. Basel II 《巴塞尔资本协议II》
      The Basel Committee issued,in July 2006,a comprehensive version of International Convergence of Capital Measurement and Capital standards:A Revised Framework,commonly known as Basel B, which intends to replace the 1988 Accord. The new framework is intended to align regulatory capital requirements more closely with underlying risks,and to provide banks and their supervisors with several options for the assessment of capital adequacy.

      2006年11月,巴塞尔委员会颁布了《用资本计量和资本标准国际协议:修订框架》,被称为《巴塞尔资本协议II》,用来取代1988年的协议。新框架的目的是对监管资本的要求与银行潜在风险相一致,为银行和监管者提供了几种可供选择的资本充足率评估方法。


     Basel II is more extensive and complex than the 1988 Accord,which is a natural reflection of the advancement and innovations in the financial marketplace and the need for a more risk-sensitive framework. Basel II is structured around three mutually reinforcing pillars that allow banks and supervisors to evaluate properly the various risks that banks face.The three pillars are:minimum capital requirements,which relates to the minimum capital requirements each bank must hold to cover its exposure to credit,market and operational risk;supervisory review process,which is concerned with supervisory reviews that aim to ensure that a bank's capital level is sufficient to cover its overall risk; and market discipline,which relates to market discipline and details minimum levels of public disclosure.

     与1998年的《巴塞尔资本协议》相比,《巴塞尔资本协议II》的范围更广,内容更复杂,它既真实地反映了近年来金融市场的发展和创新,又反映了对风险更敏感的监管框架的需求。《巴塞尔资本协议II》为银行和监管者评估所面对的风险建立了三个重要的相互支持的支柱:一,最低资本金要求,各家银行必须持有的,用于抵御信用风险,市场风险和操作风险的最低资本金;二,监督检查,确保银行的资本金足以弥补各种风险;三,市场纪律,详细规定了信息披露的最低标准。


    1.Pillar 1 - minimum capital requirements 支柱1—最低资本金要求
Pillar 1 sets out minimum capital requirements as they relate to credit,market and operational risk. Under Basel II,banks must maintain a minimum eight percent of capital to risk-weighted assets.

      支柱1制定了与信用风险、市场风险和操作风险相关的最低资本金标准,《巴塞尔资本协议II》要求,银行最低资本金不得低于风险加权资产的8%。


    In this context, capital is subdivided into the following areas:
    i.Tier 1 capital is core capital,that is,common shares,plus non-cumulative perpetual preferred shares,plus disclosed reserves,less goodwill.
ii. Tier 2 capital consists of undisclosed,asset revaluation,and general provisions (general loan-loss) reserves,as well as hybrid debt capital instruments,and subordinated term debt.
该协议把资本分为两类:
一类资本是核心资本,包括普通股、永久性非累积优先股和公开储备(减去商誉)。

二类资本包括非公开储备、资产重估准备、一般准备、混合债务资本工具和次级长期债券。


      A third category of capital,Tier 3 capital, was added in the 1996 Amendment to the Capital Accord but can only be used to meet a proportion of a bank's capital requirements for market risk. It consists of short-term subordinated debt instruments bearing specified characteristics. Core capital must represent at least 50 percent of the bank's total capital base. It follows,then,that Tier 2 capital cannot exceed 50 percent of the capital base.

       1996年的《巴塞尔资本协议》修订稿又增加了第三类资本,用于满足抵御市场风险所需的部分资本要求。该类资本是一些特殊的短期次级债券。核心资本必须至少占银行总资本的50%,二类资本不能超过银行资本的50%.


     Pillar 1 provides banks with a choice between two broad methodologies for calculating their capital requirements for credit risk. One option is to measure credit risk in a standardized manner,supported by external credit assessments such as those provided by credit rating agencies. This Standardized Approach adopts a so-called "building block" approach for interest-rate related and equity instruments which differentiates capital requirements(charges) for specific risk from those for general market risk. The alternative methodology,which is subject to the explicit approval of the bank's supervisor, allows banks to use their own internal rating systems. The Internal Models Approach enables a bank to use its proprietary in-house method which must meet the qualitative and quantitative criteria set out by the Basel Committee and is subject to the explicit approval of a bank's supervisory authorities.
      支柱1为银行提供了两种方法用以计算信用风险所需的资本:一种是采用标准法测量信用风险,主要依靠外部信用评级机构进行信用评估。标准法是对与利率相关的权益工具采用“Building Block”法(或分块法),计算覆盖特定风险的资本金标准,这与一般市场风险的测量标准不同。另一种计算方法(但必须事先得到银行监管者的明确批准)是银行的内部模型法,内部模型法使银行能够利用自身的评级法,但银行自身的评级法必须符合巴塞尔委员会制定的定性和量化标准,要得到银行监管部门的明确批准。
最后编辑于:2015-01-30 22:27
分类: 英语

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