2015.01.30 【英译中】现代金融业务.17(725)

tsepinghan (哈比) 译心译意
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发表于:2015-01-30 22:00 [只看楼主] [划词开启]
2.Pillar 2-The Supervisory Review Process 支柱2—监管检查程序
      The supervisory review process aims to ensure that banks assess their capital adequacy positions relative to their overall risks,and that supervisors review and take appropriate actions in response to those assessments. Supervisors may require banks to hold capital in excess of minimum regulatory capital ratios or take other remedial measures such as strengthening pertinent risk management or other practices. If higher ratios are required,supervisors will need to intervene if capital falls below these levels.

      监管检查旨在确保银行要评估各类风险总体所需的资本,监管当局要对银行的评估进行检查并采取适当的措施。监管者可能要求银行持有的资本超过监管资本水平或者采取其他补救措施,如加强有关风险管理等。如果需要银行提高资本金标准,监管者就要确保银行的资本金不得低于要求标准。


      Pillar 2 requires that banks perform stress tests to estimate the extent to which their IRB capital requirements could increase during a stress scenario. The results of such tests should be used by banks and supervisors to ensure that banks hold sufficient capital buffers.

      支柱2要求银行进行压力测试,预测采用内部评级法(IRB法)的银行在恶劣环境下需增加的资本。银行和监管当局要利用测试结果,保证银行持有足够的资本。


    3.Pillar 3一Market Discipline 支柱3—市场纪律
      Pillar 3 sets out disclosure requirements which will allow market participants to assess key pieces of information on the scope of application,capital,risk exposures,risk assessment processes, and hence the capital adequacy of the institution. It also discusses the role of materiality of information,frequency of disclosures and the issue of proprietary or confidential information.
      市场纪律制定了信息披露标准,这样市场参与者可以了解银行的有关申请,资本金,风险敞口和风险评估方法等关键信息以及资本金充足情况。市场纪律还讨论了信息真实的作用,信息披露次数以及信息保密问题。


ii. Risk Concentration ii.风险集中度
      Concentration of risk and large exposures is one of the major supervisory concerns.Large exposures to a single borrower, or to a group of related borrowers are a common cause of banking problems in that they represent a credit risk concentration. Large concentrations can also arise with respect to particular industries,economic sectors,or geographical regions or by having sets of loans with other characteristics that make them vulnerable to the same economic factors(e. g.,highly-leveraged transactions).

      风险集中并大量暴露是监管当局关注的重要内容之一。将贷款集中发放给单一借款人或一组关联人,是导致信贷风险集中的主要原因。风险集中也可能来自特定行业、特定经济部门、特定区域,或者把贷款发放给其他容易受到同一经济因素冲击的领域(例如高杠杆交易)。


      Banking supervisors in many countries set prudential limits to bank exposures to single borrowers,groups of related borrowers and other significant risk concentrations. These limits are usually expressed in,terms of a percentage of bank capital and,although they vary,25% of capital is typically the most that a bank or banking group may extend to a private sector non-bank borrower or a group of closely related borrowers without specific supervisory approval. Newly-established or very small banks may face practical limits on their ability to diversify,necessitating higher levels of capital to reflect the resultant risk.

      许多国家的银行监管当局对银行贷款给单一借款人、一组关联借款人以及其他具有风险集中特征的贷款都制定了审慎标准,这些标准通常用资本金的某一比例表示。尽管这些比例在不同的国家各不相同,银行或银行集团给非银行客户、关联借款人的贷款最高额一般不超过其资本金的25%,而且无须得到监管当局的特别批准。新设立的银行或者规模小的银行在信贷方面有着特殊的标准,要求有更高的资本金标准以反映与其业务相关的风险。


      In addition,supervisors monitor the bank's handling of concentrations of risk and may require that banks report to them any such exposures exceeding a specified limit(e. G.,10% of capital) or exposures to large borrowers as determined by the supervisors. In some countries,the aggregate of such large exposures is also subject to limits.
      另外,监管当局对银行风险集中的处理情况进行监控,当银行向借款人发放的贷款超过某一限制(例如资本金的10%),或者向监管当局认定的大型借款人发放贷款时,要向监管当局报告。有些国家对贷款的总量也加以限制。
最后编辑于:2015-01-30 22:27
分类: 英语

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