2015.01.31【英译中】 开采页岩气需冒很大风险 (2489字)

发表于:2015-01-31 14:24 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

China Takes On Big Risks in Its Push for Shale Gas

开采页岩气需冒很大风险

By KEITH BRADSHERAPRIL 11, 2014

 2014年4月11日 

Chinese Fireball Mystery

中国的火球之谜

China’s largest energy company has made the country’s first commercially viable shale gas discovery, but the path to energy independence is fraught with risks, as one town has seen first-hand.

中国最大的能源公司发现了该国第一个具备商业价值的页岩气,不过通往能源独立的道路其实遍地荆棘,某个小镇就亲身体验到了这一点。

JIAOSHIZHEN, China — Residents of this isolated mountain valley of terraced cornfields were just going to sleep last April when they were jolted by an enormous roar, followed by a tower of flames. A shock wave rolled across the valley, rattling windows in farmhouses and village shops, and a mysterious, pungent gas swiftly pervaded homes.

中国礁石镇 去年四月,居住在这片偏远的山谷梯田里的居民准备睡觉时,一声巨响和随之而来的冲天火柱让他们惊悚不已。冲击波横扫整个峡谷,农户与村里店铺的玻璃咯咯作响,神秘的刺激性气体迅速遍布千家万户。

“It was so scary — everyone who had a car fled the village and the rest of us without cars just stayed and waited to die,” said Zhang Mengsu, a hardware store owner.

一家五金店的店主张孟苏说:“太可怕了。有车的人都逃出了村子,而我们这些没车的就只能待在这里等死。”

All too quickly, residents realized the source of the midnight fireball: a shale gas drilling rig in their tiny rural hamlet.

很快,居民们就意识到了午夜火球的来源:一个小村庄里的页岩气钻塔。

This verdant valley represents the latest frontier in the worldwide hunt for shale gas retrievable by the technology of hydraulic fracturing, or fracking. It is a drilling boom that has upended the energy industry and spurred billions of dollars of investment.

全世界都在寻找可以用水力破碎技术回收利用的页岩气,而这片青翠峡谷的就是最前沿。颠覆整个能源产业,激起数百亿美元的投资的,就是这在钻探的轰鸣声。

Like the United States and Europe, China wants to wean itself from its dependence on energy imports — and in Jiaoshizhen, the Chinese energy giant Sinopec says it has made the country’s first commercially viable shale gas discovery. Its efforts could also help address another urgent issue, asBeijinglooks to curb an overwhelming reliance on coal that has blackened skies and madeChinathe largest contributor to global warming.

像美欧一样,中国也希望摆脱对能源进口的依赖。在礁石镇,中国的能源巨头中石化声称发现了该国第一个具备商业价值的页岩气。由于煤炭不但让天空漆黑一片,还使中国对全球变暖“贡献”最多,北京正试图减少对煤炭的极度依赖。因此该公司的行动还有助于解决另一个亟待解决的问题。


Huge drilling projects can be seen embedded into farm land outside ofFuling,China. Shale gas has been discovered in the region. 

中国涪陵城外可以看到巨型钻探项目牢牢嵌进了农田里。这里发现了页岩气。

 

But the path to energy independence and a cleaner fossil fuel is fraught with potential pitfalls. Threats to workplace safety, public health and the environment all loom large in the shale gas debate — and the question is whether those short-term risks threaten to undermine China’s long-term goal.

但是通往获得能源独立与更清洁的化石燃料的彩虹之径可能处处都是陷阱。工作场所安全,公众健康与环境可能遭到的威胁在有关页岩气的辩论中赫然耸现 问题就在于,短期的风险是否会损害中国的长期目标。

 

The energy industry around the world has faced criticism about the economic viability of vast shale projects and the environmental impact of the fracking process. But interviews with residents of six hamlets here where drilling is being done, as well as with executives and experts in Beijing, the United States and Europe, suggest that China’s search poses even greater challenges.

全世界的能源产业都会因为页岩气项目的经济可行性与破碎流程的环境影响受到批评指责,但其中北京探索页岩气时遭遇到的挑战将更加强烈,针对这里六个村的居民,以及北京、美国,欧洲的经理、专家的采访揭示了这一点。

InChina, companies must drill two to three times as deep as in theUnited States, making the process significantly more expensive, noisier and potentially more dangerous. Chinese energy giants also operate in strict secrecy; they rarely engage with local communities and accidents claim a high death toll.

中国公司的钻探次数必须达到美国公司的两到三倍才能钻到与后者一样的深度,因此中国公司的生产流程更为昂贵,更为嘈杂,潜在的危险性更高。同时,中国能源巨头的运作从来都是高度保密,很少知会当地社区,而事故造成的死亡数字也非常之高。

The still-disputed incident in Jiaoshizhen has raised serious concerns among its residents.

火球事件的争论仍在继续,当地居民已对此担心不已。

Villagers said that employees at the time told them that eight workers died when the rig exploded that night. Sinopec officials and village leaders then ordered residents not to discuss the event, according to the villagers. Now villagers complain of fouled streams and polluted fields.

村民们说道当时员工告诉他们,当晚的钻井爆炸事故导致八名工人丧生。而中石化的官员与村领导命令居民不得讨论此事。现在,村民们对污浊的溪流与受污染的农田抱怨不已。

“There was a huge ball of fire,” said Liu Jiazhen, a mustard greens farmer with three children who lives a five-minute walk from the site. “The managers here all raced for their lives up the hill.”

刘佳珍说道:“巨大的火球腾空而起,经理们为了保命都向山上狂奔。”刘佳珍是一名种植芥菜农户,她和三个孩子一起居住在离事发地点走路只要五分钟的地方。

Ms. Liu said that the flames rose higher than the pines on a nearby ridge, covering the steel frame of the rig, which is nearly 100 feet high. The flames burned for hours, she said.

刘佳珍说道,熊熊烈火高过了附近山上的松树,吞噬了近100英尺高的钻塔钢结构,并且持续燃烧了数小时。

Sinopec describes the incident as a controlled flaring of gas and denies that anybody died. While the company would not speak in detail about its shale projects, Sinopec said it ran its operations safely and without harm to the environment.

中石化声称此次天然气燃烧事件得到了控制,没有造成人员死亡。虽然自诩为安全运作,不会对环境造成危害,但中石化根本不会提供与其页岩气项目相关细节。

Li Chunguang, the president of Sinopec, said in an interview in late March that nothing had gone wrong in Jiaoshizhen. “There is no basis for this,” he said.

三月底中石化总裁李春光接受采访时声称礁石镇没有发生任何问题,“所有的一切都是谣言。”

The bustling activity in Jiaoshizhen indicates a significant find for Sinopec.

礁石镇繁忙的活动意味着中石化有了大发现。

Feeder pipes connect some of the dozen or so drilling sites, and 100 more wells are planned. Bright blue, boxy equipment for gas compression is being installed on large, flat lots next to at least two of the drilling rigs. A two-lane road has been paved across a mountain pass from Fuling, the nearest city, to help carry the 1,100 truckloads of steel, cement and other supplies needed for each well.

数十个钻井里有些连有支线管道,按计划还将增加100多个钻井。亮蓝色方形气体压缩设备正在大片平坦的土地上安装,至少紧邻两个钻井台。一条穿越大山直抵最近城市 涪陵的双车道公路已经铺设完毕,用于运输1100卡车的钢材,水泥及钻井所需的其他补给。

The valley has been so isolated for centuries that residents of its 16 hamlets still speak a dialect that is distinct even from Fuling, 13 miles away. Jiaoshizhen had only two-story concrete buildings and single-story mud brick farmhouses last August; Sinopec workers lived in trailers while managers rented the upstairs of concrete homes. On a visit six months later, at least 20 tower cranes were erecting high-rises.

由于峡谷与世隔绝了几个世纪,16个村子的居民的口音与仅13英里外的涪陵都有着明显差别。去年八月,礁石镇里还只有两层高的水泥建筑与单层的泥砖农舍。中石化的员工住在拖车式活动房屋里,经理们则租住在水泥房屋的上层。不过六个月后再次踏访时,那里至少有20台塔吊正在建造高层建筑。

The gas field in Jiaoshizhen “is the closest we have inChinato a breakthrough project,” said Gavin Thompson, the head ofAsiaand Pacific gas and power research at Wood Mackenzie, one of the largest energy consulting companies. He noted, however, that Sinopec was providing few details and that he, like most Western experts, had not been able to visit the valley.

世界最大的能源咨询公司之一,伍德–麦肯兹公司亚太地区天然气与能源研究部部长汤普森表示:“礁石镇里的这片天然气田是我们在中国离最靠近突破性项目的天然气田”但是,他也指出中石化几乎没有透露任何细节,自己也和大多数西方专家一样无法参观这片峡谷。

Chris Faulkner, the chief executive and president of Breitling Energy, a Dallas company that has advised Sinopec on its drilling in western China for four years, said that the energy giants’ reluctance to have open discussions about health, safety and environmental issues might prompt communities to fear the worst.

达拉斯的百年灵能源公司为中石化的西部钻井项目提供咨询服务四年了,其总经理兼总裁的克里斯查克纳表示,中石化不愿就健康,安全与环境问题进行公开讨论,这可能会导致社会担心最坏的后果。

 “If they think that they’re going to go out and drill 1,000 wells, and no one is going to Google ‘fracking,’ they’re fools,” he said, adding that even in China, “the days of ‘shut up and be quiet’ are gone.”

“如果他们认为自己要去灭火,还有钻出1000口天然气井,而没有人去谷歌一下‘水力压裂’的话,那么这群人都是傻瓜。即使在中国,能够让人们保持沉默闭上嘴巴的日子也一去不复返了。

The Chinese energy giants have plenty of money to fund their efforts. Sinopec has one million employees and is the world’s fourth-largest company by revenue after Royal Dutch Shell, Walmart and Exxon Mobil; the fifth-largest isChinaNational Petroleum. With their deep pockets, the companies have been investing heavily in North American shale businesses; Sinopec paid $2.2 billion in 2012 for a 30 percent stake in Devon Energy’s shale gas and oil operations in theUnited States.

中国的能源巨头有充足的资金为自身的行动提供支持。中石化有100万雇员,公司收入世界第四,仅次于荷兰皇家壳牌石油,沃尔玛公司与埃克森美孚石油公司,排第五的则是中石油。这些公司腰包鼓鼓,对北美的页岩业务也投入巨资。2012年,中石化花22亿美元购买了美国戴文能源公司页岩气与页岩油的30%的股份。

InChina, workplace safety is a significant concern. Thousands die each year in coal mines, according to government statistics that have prompted a successful national crackdown over the last decade.

工作场所安全问题在中国备受关注。根据政府统计数据,每年有数千人死于煤矿矿井事故。而这些数据也使得小煤窑取缔风暴在过去十年刮遍全国。

Scant information is publicly available about the safety and environmental records of the politically powerful, mostly state-owned oil and gas industry. But Sinopec has acknowledged two deadly accidents in the last year, albeit not related to fracking. An oil pipeline explosion inQingdaokilled 62 and injured 136, and a cooking gas explosion in Dongguan killed one.

石油与天然气产业政治势力强劲,大部分由国家控股。这些产业的安全与环境记录信息很少公开。不过中石化还是承认去年发生了两起严重的事故,虽然与水力压裂无关。青岛油管爆炸事件导致62人丧生,136人受伤,而东莞的沼气爆炸导致一人死亡。

In Jiaoshizhen, after the blast, worries linger about the impact on the residents’ health and their fields.

礁石镇爆炸事件之后,人们一直担心当地居民的健康与土地受到的影响。

Villagers said in interviews in August and February that the fast-spreading gas they encountered last year had been foul-smelling. Sinopec said that it had done air tests and not found any toxic pollution, although it declined to identify the gas.

在八月与二月的采访中,村民们表示去年遇到的气体扩散迅速,带有浓烈的刺激性气味。中石化拒绝鉴定这种气体,但声称已经做了空气检测,未发现毒性污染。

The gas evoked particular fear here because drilling byChinaNational Petroleum in 2003 about 120 miles to the northeast released toxic gases that killed 243 people and sickened thousands. That accident involved conventional gas exploration, however, not fracking.

由于2003年中石油在该地区东北120英里的钻探施工泄露出了有毒气体,造成243人丧生,数千人染病,此次爆炸事件泄漏出的气体给当地制造了一种特殊的恐怖气氛。不过,2003年那起事故与传统的气体勘探有关而与水力压裂无关。

Residents here also worry about diesel runoff from the drilling sites, tainting local streams and at least one shallow well. The drilling “makes so much noise and the water that comes down the mountain has become so much dirtier to drink; now it smells of diesel,” said Tian Shiao Yung, a farmer.

居民们同样也担心从钻井流出的柴油,这些油污染了溪流和至少一个浅表水井。农民田氏奥说道,钻探活动制造了很多噪音,从山上流下的水也变得污浊无比无法饮用,现在闻上去就像柴油。

Sinopec said that it temporarily provided drinking water to residents after drilling foam surfaced in a nearby cave last spring and it changed its drilling practice. The company said that subsequent tests had shown the local water to be “drinkable.”

中石化表示,去年春季附近的洞穴里冒出钻探泡沫之后,公司暂时向居民提供了饮用水,而现在已改进了钻探作业。随后的检测也表明当地的水可以饮用。

Despite her complaints, Ms. Tian, like every other resident interviewed, welcomed the drilling for one reason: money.

尽管一再抱怨,田氏奥还是和其他接受采访的居民一样,对钻探作业表示欢迎。原因就是一个:钱。

Sinopec rents land from farmers for 9,000 renminbi, or $1,475, per acre each year. Farmers earn that much money from growing crops only in the best years, and then after hundreds of hours of labor.

中石化租赁农民的土地,每英亩的年租金为9000人民币,也就是1475美元。以前要种地获得这么多钱,必须在收成最好的年份经过数百小时的劳作后才能挣到。

“Farmers don’t mind; now they can buy their rice instead of having to grow it,” Ms. Tian said, adding: “I’m still drinking the water.”

田氏奥说道:“农民们现在并不介意,现在他们可以购买粮食,无需亲自耕作。而我自己还在喝这里的水。”

分类: 英语
全部回复 (7) 回复 反向排序

  • 0

    点赞

  • 收藏

  • 扫一扫分享朋友圈

    二维码

  • 分享

课程推荐

需要先加入社团哦

编辑标签

最多可添加10个标签,不同标签用英文逗号分开

保存

编辑官方标签

最多可添加10个官方标签,不同标签用英文逗号分开

保存
知道了

复制到我的社团