2015.01.31【英译中】 调查发现,2012年污染导致全世界700万人死亡 (1830字)

发表于:2015-01-31 14:26 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

Pollution Killed 7 Million People Worldwide in 2012, Report Finds

调查发现,2012年污染导致全世界700万人死亡(2014年3月25日)

 

A tourist boat navigated through a haze in the GuangdongProvinceofChinathis month. The country’s rapid urbanization was cited as contributing to pollution.

本月一艘游船在广东省穿越浓雾。据信,该国迅速的城镇化是造成污染的原因之一。

 

BEIJING — From taxi tailpipes inParisto dung-fired stoves inNew Delhi, air pollution claimed seven million lives around the world in 2012, according to figures released Tuesday by the World Health Organization. More than one-third of those deaths, the organization said, occurred in fast-developing nations ofAsia, where rates of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease have been soaring.

北京 根据世界卫生组织周二公布的数据,从巴黎的汽车尾气到新德里燃烧动物粪便的火炉,这一系列空气污染在2012年共夺走了全世界700万条生命。世卫组织指出其中1/3以上的死难者身处发展迅速的亚洲国家,在那里心血管疾病与肺病的发病率一直节节攀升。

 

Around the world, one out of every eight deaths was tied to dirty air, the agency determined — twice as many as previously estimated. Its report identified air pollution as the world’s single biggest environmental health risk.

世卫组织确定全世界1/8的死亡案例与污浊的空气密不可分,其概率是原先估计的两倍,并发布报告将空气污染定为全世界最大的环境健康杀手。

 

 “The big news is that we have a better understanding of how large a role air pollution plays in strokes and coronary heart attacks,” said Dr. Carlos Dora, coordinator of public health and the environment at the organization. “Given the astronomical costs, countries need to find a way to prevent these noncommunicable diseases.”

世卫组织公共卫生与环境协调员卡洛斯多拉指出:“这一重磅消息就是我们进一步认识到了空气污染与中风、冠心病之间的联系有多么紧密。鉴于这些非传染性疾病造成的惨重损失,各国务必想出方法予以预防。”

 

The report found that those who are most vulnerable live in a wide arc of Asia stretching from Japan andChinain the northeast toIndiain the south.

Exposure to smoke from cooking fires means that poor women are especially at risk, the agency said

调查发现,从东北部的日本与中国到南部的印度,生活在这一宽广的、呈弧形的亚洲地区之上的民众最容易受到空气污染的侵害。而暴露于厨房油烟之下的贫困妇女受到的威胁尤为猛烈。

 

Indoor air pollutants loomed as the largest threat, involved in 4.3 million deaths in 2012, while toxic air outdoors figured in 3.7 million deaths, the agency said. Many deaths were attributed to both.

世卫组织指出室内空气污染物已然是最具威胁的杀手,2012年与之有关死亡案例高达430万,而与室外有毒气体有关的死亡案例只有370万。不过,很多死亡案例和室内与室外的污染物都有关系。

 

Breakneck urbanization in the developing nations of Asia, especiallyChina, is a major force contributing to the air pollution problem.

亚洲发展中国家(尤其是中国)拔苗助长式的快速城市化进程是造成空气污染问题的元凶之一。

 

The World Health Organization report, released in Geneva, coincided on Tuesday with the publication of a World Bank study inBeijingconcerningChina’s drive to urbanize. The study, issued with theDevelopmentResearchCenterofChina’s State Council, argued that many of the country’s cities had been allowed to sprawl wastefully and called for better-planned, denser cities instead.

周二世卫组织于日内瓦发布了这份报告,其观点与世界银行在北京就中国城市化进程的迅猛势头发布的研究报告不谋而合。这份由世界银行与中国国务院发展研究中心联合发布的研究报告指出众多中国城市可以不计成本恣意扩张,呼吁完善城市规划,加大城市密度。

 

The bank estimated thatChinawill spend $5.3 trillion on urban infrastructure over the next 15 years, as it plans to move 100 million farmers to cities and to better integrate another 100 million who already live in urban areas but lack full access to schools and hospitals.

世界银行估计由于计划迁移1亿农民进城,让1亿已在城市生活却不能充分享受到教育医疗服务的居民更好地融入城市,未来十五年中国需在城市基础设施上花费5.3万亿美元。

 

The study said the Chinese government could save $1.4 trillion of that cost — or about 15 percent of the country’s total economic output last year — by planning its cities more rationally.

此项研究指出,倘若中国政府可以更加理性的进行城市规划,就可以节省1.4万亿美元,约相当于该国去年经济总量的15%

 

One way would be to halt the current practice of expropriating farmers’ land and selling it to private developers, a method that helps raise money but leads to wasteful sprawl.

征收农民土地再转手卖给私人开发商是当前的惯例,有助于筹集资金但会导致过度扩张。叫停这一做法不失为一种解决方案。

 

The bank said that building more densely in city centers would be more efficient; for example,Guangzhou, with 8.5 million residents, could accommodate 4.2 million more in the same space if it were as densely developed asSeoul,South Korea.

世界银行指出市中心的建筑格局越密集就越有效率,比如850万人口的广州,如果像韩国首尔那样进行密集开发就可以多住420万人。

 

Based on current trends, the study said, Chinese cities in the next decade will gobble up land equal in area to theNetherlands, leading to longer commutes, higher energy consumption and continued high levels of air pollution.

报告指出根据目前的趋势,未来十年中国城市扩张所吞并的土地相当于整个荷兰,从而导致上下班路途变远,能耗增高以及空气污染水平居高不下。

 

Sprawl will cost China $300 billion a year in premature deaths, birth defects and other health-related problems, the study said

报告指出城市扩张导致的过早死亡,出生缺陷及其他健康问题每年让中国损失3000亿美元。

 

The study also emphasized the unfairness of the current system, with farmers receiving only 20 percent of their land’s value.

该报告同样强调了目前中国体制的不平等,农民得到征地赔偿只是地价的1/20

 

That has led to chronic unrest and, the bank said, has increased the disparities in income between rich and poor. Some of the bank’s recommendations were found in a plan released this month, which included proposals to better integrate existing residents.

因此,中国社会长期动荡不安,贫富悬殊进一步扩大。本月公布的一份计划书上已涵盖了世界银行的某些建议,还包括让居民更好融入城市生活的方案。

 

China has said it wants one billion of its people, about 60 percent of the population, to be living in cities by 2020 — up from 54 percent now. But the bank said urbanization is moving much faster than that, and so are the problems it creates.

Sri Mulyani Indrawati, managing director of the World Bank, said in an interview that to follow the bank’s recommendations,Chinawould need major changes in how cities finance new infrastructure.

中国表示希望在2020年以前让10亿人,也就是60%人口住进城市,现在城市人口的比例已经达到54%。但世界银行指出城市化进程的速度及随之而来的问题都远远超出了预计。世界银行常务董事穆莉娅妮在接受采访是表示依照该银行的建议,中国需要对城市基础设施的融资方式做出重大调整

 

Currently, local governments cannot levy taxes, so they rely on land expropriation instead. The Chinese leadership has good intentions to overhaul the system, but no specific plan yet, Ms. Indrawati said: “I don’t think that, at the moment in this case, there is clarity of when you are going to achieve what.”

目前地方政府无法征税,因此极为依赖土地财政。中国的领导层有彻底改革这种体制的意愿,但目前还没有给出明确的计划。英德拉瓦蒂表示:“我认为此时此刻就此事而言,‘什么时候达成什么目标’这样清晰可见的蓝图是不存在的。”

 

The reports by the World Bank and World Health Organization each said the burning of noxious fuels — coal, wood and animal waste — was among the greatest threats to human health.

世界银行与世卫组织的报告分别指出燃烧煤炭,木材,动物排泄物等有害燃料是对人类健康威胁最大的因素之一。

 

InIndia, the health agency estimated, 700 million people rely on biomass fuels like agricultural waste for indoor cooking.

世卫组织估计在印度有7亿人依赖农业废料之类的生物燃料进行室内烹饪。

 

Kirk R. Smith of the University ofCalifornia,Berkeley, measured pollutants from smoky indoor ovens, and said they were comparable to burning 400 cigarettes an hour.

加利福尼亚大学的柯克·史密斯测量了室内烟炉的污染物后指出,这些污染物水平相当于一小时燃烧400根香烟。

 

“Unfortunately, we have not made a lot of progress in the past decades, and household air pollution is still the largest single health risk factor for Indian women and girls,” the health agency quoted Dr. Smith as saying.

世卫组织援引史密斯博士的话说:“很遗憾过去数十年里我们并没有取得多大进展,家庭空气污染依然是印度女性的头号健康杀手。”

 

InChina, the bigger culprit is coal, which supplies two-thirds of the country’s energy.

在中国,更具威胁的杀手是为该国提供了2/3能源的煤炭。

 

A study published last year in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences estimated that people in northern China, where the air pollution is worst, lived an average of five fewer years than those in the south.

去年一篇发表在美国国家科学院院刊的研究报告估计由于中国北方地区的空气污染最为严重,北方居民的人均寿命较南方居民的短五年。

 

Alarmed by the worsening smog and the rising discontent among urban residents, Chinese leaders have taken note, promising to reduce reliance on coal and introduce cleaner-burning motor fuels and more energy-efficient construction methods. Prime Minister Li Keqiang declared a “war against pollution in his annual report to the nation this month.

由于雾霾天气愈演愈烈,城市居民的不满度也日益高涨,中国的领导层已经有所察觉,承诺减少对煤炭的依赖,引进更加清洁的机动车燃料,采取更具能效的建筑方法。本月,李克强总理在国家年度报告中宣布“向污染宣战”。

 

Though the winter heating season has ended,Beijingwas still suffused with a familiar acrid haze on Tuesday. TheUnited StatesEmbassy’s air monitor rated the air as “very unhealthy,” a level at which outdoor activity should be avoided.

尽管冬季供暖季已经结束,北京在周二又一次笼罩在熟悉的酸性雾霾里。美国大使馆的空气检测数据表明空气“非常不健康”,应该避免户外活动。

 

Dr. Dora of the health agency said he hoped the stark mortality figures released on Tuesday would prompt people and governments alike to confront the scourge of filthy air with greater urgency.

世卫组织的朵拉博士表示希望周二发布的冷冰冰的死亡数据可以让民众与政府行动起来,以更强烈的紧迫感应对空气污染的根源。

 

“What’s needed is collective action,” he said. “The air you are polluting is the same air you breathe.”

他表示:“我们需要携起手来,因为你呼吸的就是自己污染的空气。”

 

 

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