2015.01.31【英译中】美国的城市交通的公平性问题 (3)

fay_ai (非非) 译人小成
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发表于:2015-01-31 14:31 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

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Follow the Dollars

跟着资金走

 

Transportation spending programs do not benefit all populations equally (Bullard and lohnson 1997, 7). By following the transportation dollars in metropolitan regions, one can tell who is “important” and who is not. The lion's share of transportation dollars is spent on roads, while urban transit systems are often left in disrepair. Nationally, 80 percent of all surface transportation funds is earmarked for highways and 20 percent is earmarked for public transportation. “ Public transit has received roughly $50 billion since the creation of the Urban Mass Transit Administration in the early l960s, and roadway projects received more than $205 billion between 1956 and the early 1990s (Dittmar and Chen I995).

交通运输资金项目并没有给所有人带来等同的利益。追溯大都市区域交通运输资金的走向,我们可以看出谁是“重要的”以及谁不是。面对公路花费的狮子大开口,城市交通系统只能吃到残羹剩饭。全美百分之八十的路上交通资金全部拨款给了告诉公路,而只有百分之二十拨款给公共交通。“公共交通设施自二十世纪五十年代的城市公共交通管理体系开设以来只收到了大约五千万资金,而公路项目在1956年至二十世纪80年代就获得了超过两亿五百万的资金。

 

Generally, states spend less than 20 percent of federal transportation funding on transit. The current federal funding scheme is biased against metropolitan areas. The federal government allocated the bulk of transportation dollars directly to state DOTs (Puentes and Bailey 2003). Many of the road-building fiefdoms are no friend to urban transit. Just less than 6 percent of all federal highway dollars are suballocated directly to the metropolitan regions. Moreover, thirty states restrict use of the gasoline tax revenue to funding highway programs only (Puentes and Prince 2003). Although local governments within metropolitan areas own and maintain the vast majority of the transportation infrastructure, they receive only about 10 percent of every dollar they generate? Disparate transportation outcomes can be subsumed under three broad categories of inequity: procedural, geographic, and social.

大体上来看,州际花在交通上的联邦交通运输资金不到百分之二十。现有的联邦资金计划对大都市区域有明显偏颇。联邦政府的交通运输资金都是直接拨款各州交通运输部门的。很多的道路建设都与城市运输无关。低于6%的所有联邦高速公路资金是直接次分配给大都市区域的。此外,有三十个州的汽油税收都局限于公路资助。尽管大都市内区域政府持有并且管理大部分交通运输公共设施,他们只能从中获得10%的收益。迥然不同的交通运输结果产生的原因可以被归咎于以下三个宽泛的类别中:程序公正,地理区域以及社会阶级。


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最后编辑于:2015-01-31 14:33
分类: 英语
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