2015.01.31 【英译中】现代金融业务.19(947)

tsepinghan (哈比) 译心译意
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发表于:2015-01-31 21:15 [只看楼主] [划词开启]
      With loss assets,the underlying borrowers,often in bankruptcy,have formally suspended debt repayments,or have otherwise ceased normal business operations. Once an asset is classified "loss",there is little prospect of collecting either its principal or interest.
      When access to collateral,rather than the value of the collateral,is a problem,a less severe classification may be appropriate. However, banks should not maintain any asset on the balance sheet if realizing its value would require long-term litigation or other lengthy recovery efforts. Losses are to be recorded in the period as an obligation that becomes uncollectible.
      In addition to loans,balances due from banks,acceptances and bills of exchange held,as well as commitments and contingent liabilities which subject a bank to credit risk are also classified in the same way in order to give a better picture on asset quality. Some countries have gone one step further to stipulate the loan loss provisioning level required for different categories of loans,e. g. 25% for substandard loans,50% for doubtful loans and 100% for loss loans. The objective of loan classification system is to help identify potential problem assets that may have an adverse bearing on the financial position of a bank.
      In China,guidance for the five-category loan classification system is set out in the Guideline on Risk-based Loan Classification issued by the People's Bank of China in 1999 and updated in December 2001,during which time the system was operated on a trial basis.It took full effect on January 1,2002. On April 25,2002,the People's Bank of China issued a Guideline on Loan Loss Provision requiring all banking institutions in China to maintain adequate provisions
iv. Liquidity 流动性
      Banks need adequate liquidity to meet their obligations when they fall due,especially where the timing and amount of the commitment are uncertain,and to maintain confidence of depositors and shareholders. The major obligations in this context are demands for withdrawals from sight deposits,time deposits,and commitments to lend on a specific date,unutilized overdraft facilities and inter-bank settlements. Banks may provide for liquidity in the following ways:
1.Hold cash or near-cash assets; 
2.Appropriate cash flows from maturing assets,via assets portfolio management; and
3.New deposits may be attracted and monies could be borrowed in the money markets.
      Banking regulation requires every bank to maintain a minimum liquidity ratio of "liquid assets" to“qualifying liabilities".Every bank is required to maintain a liquidity ratio of not less than 25% in each calendar month,calculated on the basis of the sum of its liquid assets and the sum of its qualifying liabilities for each working day of the calendar month concerned.
      The liquidity ratio is calculated by comparing liquid assets that mature within one month to qualifying liabilities that fall due in one month. A bank's balance sheet typically consists of liabilities that are short-term and assets that are long-term,to ensure that banks could meet their obligations when they fall due. Good management of liquidity is important. Furthermore,to cater for the possibility of a sudden liquidity squeeze or other shocks that may place strains on the bank's balance sheet,a cushion of liquidity is essential.
      However, maintaining a high level of liquidity at all times are costly. Banks have to run acceptable level of maturity mismatch to generate profits. Therefore,a suitable balance between liquidity and profitability has to be maintained.

分类: 英语

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