Students’ native language should be maintained

发表于:2015-02-02 02:56 [只看楼主] [划词开启]
Teaching in English and hoping students will figure it out is not the same as teaching English. Proponents of native-language maintenance instruction raise four important issues (Gersten, 1996b; Goldenberg, 1996; Hakuta & Garcia, 1989).

1. Deep learning in the first language supports second language learning. For example, research on a large national sample that followed 8th graders for 12 years found that for Latino students, proficiency in the first language of Spanish predicted reading ability in English and English reading ability predicted achievement in school and in careers (Guglielmi, 2008). The metacognitive strategies and knowledge developed when students learn to read in their first language are transferred to reading in a second language as well (van Gelderen, Schoonen, Stoel, de Glopper, & Hulstijn, 2007). So maintaining and increasing proficiency in the first language is important. The learning strategies and academic content (math, science, history, etc.) that students learn in their native language are not forgotten when they learn English.

2. Children who are forced to try to learn math or science in an unfamiliar language are bound to have trouble. What if you had been forced to learn fractions or biology in a second language that you had studied for only a semester? Some psychologists believe students taught by this approach may become semilingual ; that is, they are not proficient in either language. Being semilingual may be one reason the dropout rate is so high for low-SES Latino students (Ovando & Collier, 1998).

3. If the first language is neglected and the entire emphasis is on English, students may get the message that their home languages (and therefore, their families and cultures) are second class.

4. Years ago, Kenji Hakuta cited a “paradoxical attitude of admiration and pride for school-attained bilingualism on the one hand and scorn and shame for home-brewed immigrant bilingualism on the other” (1986, p. 2 29 ). Ironically, by the time students have mastered academic English and let their home language deteriorate, they reach secondary school and are encouraged to learn a “second” language. Sometimes native speakers of Spanish are encouraged to learn French or German, so they risk becoming semilingual in three languages (Miranda, 2008).
分类: 美音范
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