英语中所有19种修辞手法的全部解释和例句

cher_hi (茜儿) 高级粉丝
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发表于:2015-02-04 13:53 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

1.simile 明喻

明喻是将具有共性的不同事物作对比.这种共性存在于人们的心里,而不是事物的自然属性.


标志词常用 like, as, seem, as if, as though, similar to, such as等.


例如:

1>.he was like a cock who thought the sun had risen to hear him crow.

2>.i wandered lonely as a cloud.

3>.einstein only had a blanket on, as if he had just walked out of a fairy tale.


2.metaphor 隐喻,暗喻

隐喻是简缩了的明喻,是将某一事物的名称用于另一事物,通过比较形成.

例如:


1>.hope is a good breakfast, but it is a bad supper.

2>.some books are to be tasted, others swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested.


3.metonymy 借喻,转喻

借喻不直接说出所要说的事物,而使用另一个与之相关的事物名称.


i.以容器代替内容,例如:

1>.the kettle boils. 水开了.

2>.the room sat silent. 全屋人安静地坐着.


ii.以资料.工具代替事物的名称,例如:

lend me your ears, please. 请听我说.


iii.以作者代替作品,例如:

a complete shakespeare 莎士比亚全集


vi.以具体事物代替抽象概念,例如:

i had the muscle, and they made money out of it. 我有力气,他们就用我的力气赚钱.


4.synecdoche 提喻

提喻用部分代替全体,或用全体代替部分,或特殊代替一般.


例如:

1>.there are about 100 hands working in his factory.(部分代整体)

他的厂里约有100名工人.


2>.he is the newton of this century.(特殊代一般)

他是本世纪的牛顿.


3>.the fox goes very well with your cap.(整体代部分)

这狐皮围脖与你的帽子很相配.


5.synaesthesia 通感,联觉,移觉

这种修辞法是以视.听.触.嗅.味等感觉直接描写事物.通感就是把不同感官的感觉沟通起来,借联想引起感觉转移“以感觉写感觉”。通感技巧的运用,能突破语言的局限,丰富表情达意的审美情趣,起到增强文采的艺术效果。比如:欣赏建筑的重复 与变化的样式会联想到音乐的重复与变化的节奏;闻到酸的东西会联想到尖锐的物体;听到飘渺轻柔的音乐会联想到薄薄的半透明的纱子;又比如朱自清《荷塘月色》里的“ 微风过处送来缕缕清香,仿佛远处高楼上渺茫的歌声似的”。


例如:

1>.the birds sat upon a tree and poured forth their lily like voice.(用视觉形容听觉,鸟落在树上,由它发出的声音联想到百合花)


鸟儿落在树上,倾泻出百合花似的声音.


2>.taste the music of mozart.(用嗅觉形容听觉)

品尝mozart的音乐.


6.personification 拟人


拟人是把生命赋予无生命的事物.

例如:

1>.the night gently lays her hand at our fevered heads.(把夜拟人化)


2>.i was very happy and could hear the birds singing in the woods.(把鸟拟人化)


7.hyperbole 夸张

夸张是以言过其实的说法表达强调的目的.它可以加强语势,增加表达效果..


例如:

1>.i beg a thousand pardons.

2>.love you. you are the whole world to me, and the moon and the stars.

3>.when she heard the bad news, a river of tears poured out.


8.parallelism 排比, 平行

这种修辞法是把两个或两个以上的结构大体相同或相似,意思相关,语气一致的短语.句子排列成串,形成一个整体


例如:

1>.no one can be perfectly free till all are free; no one can be perfectly moral till all are moral; no one can be perfectly

happy till all are happy.


2>.in the days when all these things are to be answered forfor, i summon yo and yours, to the last of your bad race, to answer for them. in the days when all these things are to be answered for, i summon your brother, the worst of your bad race, to answer for them separately.


9.euphemism 委婉,婉辞法

婉辞法指用委婉,文雅的方法表达粗恶,避讳的话.

例如:


1>.he is out visiting the necessary. 他出去方便一下.


2>.his relation with his wife has not been fortunate. 他与妻子关系不融洽.


3>.deng xiaoping passed away in 1997. (去世)


10.allegory 讽喻,比方(原意“寓言”)

建立在假借过去或别处的事例与对象之上,传达暗示,影射或者讥讽现世各种现象的含义。


英文解释:an expressive style that uses fictional characters and events to describe some subject by suggestive resemblances; an extended metaphor 摘自英语专业《大学英语教程》一书


这是一种源于希腊文的修辞法,意为"换个方式的说法".它是一种形象的描述,具有双重性,表层含义与真正意味的是两回事.


例如:

1>.make the hay while the sun shines.

表层含义:趁着出太阳的时候晒草

真正意味:趁热打铁


2>.it's time to turn plough into sword.

表层含义:是时候把犁变成剑


11.irony 反语

反语指用相反意义的词来表达意思的作文方式.如在指责过失.错误时,用赞同过失的说法,而在表扬时,则近乎责难的说法.


例如:

1>.it would be a fine thing indeed not knowing what time it was in the morning.

早上没有时间观念还真是一件好事啊(真实含义是应该明确早上的时间观念)


2>"of course, you only carry large notes, no small change on you. "the waiter said to the beggar.


12.pun 双关

双关就是用一个词在句子中的双重含义,借题发挥.作出多种解释,旁敲侧击,从而达到意想不到的幽默.滑稽效果.它主要以相似的词形.词意和谐音的方式出现.


例如:

1>.she is too low for a high praise, too brown for a fair praise and too little for a great praise.


2>.an ambassador is an honest man who lies abroad for the good of his country.


3>.if we don't hang together, we shall hang separately.


13.parody 仿拟

这是一种模仿名言.警句.谚语,改动其中部分词语,从而使其产生新意的修辞.


例如:

1>.rome was not built in a day, nor in a year.


2>.a friend in need is a friend to be avoided.


3>.if you give a girl an inch nowadays she will make address of it.


14.rhetorical question 修辞疑问(反问)

它与疑问句的不同在于它并不以得到答复为目的,而是以疑问为手段,取得修辞上的效果,其特点是:肯定问句表示强烈否定,而否定问句表示强烈的肯定.它的答案往往是不言而喻的.


例如:

1>.how was it possible to walk for an hour through the woods and see nothing worth of note?


2>.shall we allow those untruths to go unanswered?


15.antithesis 对照,对比,对偶

这种修辞指将意义完全相反的语句排在一起对比的一种修辞方法.

例如:

1>.not that i loved caeser less but that i loved romemore.


2>.you are staying; i am going.


3>.give me liberty, or give me death.


16.paradox 隽语

这是一种貌似矛盾,但包含一定哲理的意味深长的说法,是一种矛盾修辞法..


例如:

1>.more haste, less speed.欲速则不达


2>.the child is the father to the man.(童年时代可决定人之未来)三岁看大,四岁看老。


17.oxymoron 反意法,逆喻

这也是一种矛盾修辞法,用两种不相调和的特征形容一个事物,以不协调的搭配使读者领悟句中微妙的含义.


例如:

1>.no light, but rather darkness visible.没有光亮,黑暗却清晰可见


2>.the state of this house is cheerless welcome.


18.climax 渐进法,层进法

这种修辞是将一系列词语按照意念的大小.轻重.深浅.高低等逐层渐进,最后达到顶点.可以增强语势,逐渐加深读者印象.


例如:

1>.i am sorry, i am so sorry, i am so extremely sorry.


2>.eye had not seen nor ear heard, and nothing had touched his heart of stone.


19.anticlimax 渐降法

与climax相反的一种修辞法,将一系列词语由大到小,由强到弱地排列.

例如:


1>.on his breast he wears his decorations, at his side a sword, on his feet a pair of boots.


2>.the duties of a soldier are to protect his country and peel potatoes.

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