【英语·英美文化】维多利亚时期的胡子热潮(上)

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发表于:2015-02-04 16:15 [只看楼主] [划词开启]


【词汇学习

stamp out  消灭;根除
e.g. The doctors are trying to stamp out the disease. 医生正在尽力消灭这种疾病。
coiffed  adj. (头发)经过梳理的
e.g. Her hair was perfectly coiffed. 她的头发梳理得非常整齐。
scrupulously  adv. 一丝不苟地; 小心翼翼地
e.g. You have to scrupulously check and cross-check everything you hear. 你必须仔细检查并多方核对你所听到的每一件事。
premiere  n. 首映
e.g. The film opened with a star-studded premiere last night. 该影片昨晚举办了明星云集的首映式。
assassinate  v. 暗杀,行刺
e.g. A plot to assassinate the banker has been uncovered by the police. 暗杀银行家的密谋被警方侦破了。
prodigious  adj. 异常的,惊人的;巨大的
e.g. This business generates cash in prodigious amounts. 这种业务收益丰厚。

 

【正文学习

The Great Victorian Beard Craze    维多利亚时期的胡子热潮

The beard fashion of the past 10 years on both sides of the Atlantic mirrors an earlier facial hair craze, which started during the Crimean War, lasted for three decades, and was only entirely stamped out with the invention of the disposable razor in the early 1900s, writes Lucinda Hawksley.

过去十年风靡于大西洋两岸的”胡须时尚“也是早期”胡须热潮“的写照,这一热潮最早始于克里米亚战争期间,持续了三十多年,最终完全取代它的是二十世纪初一次性剃须刀的发明。——露辛达· 霍克斯利
In the mid-19th Century, men throughout North America and Europe began doing something most had never done before. They abandoned their barbers, left patented safety razors rusting on bathroom shelves and began growing facial hair.

在 19世纪中期,北美洲和欧洲的人们开始做一些之前从未尝试过的事。他们不去找理发师,也不用那些已经在卫生间储物架上生锈了的安全剃须刀,而开始留胡须。
They were not merely growing the well-coiffed whiskers and neat moustaches hitherto deemed acceptable, but cultivating enormous whiskers that connected to huge, bushy beards and left just about enough space between them and the ever-expanding moustache to allow the owner to eat and speak.

他们不仅留那些至今我们能接受的整理得很好的络腮胡子和小胡须,同时,他们还留那些很浓密的胡子,也会留出嘴的位置以便可以吃饭和讲话。
In Britain the return of the beard (the full beard had last been in vogue in Tudor times) was thanks to the Crimean War of 1854-56. Beards had been banned in the British army until this time, but the freezing temperatures of Crimean winters, and the impossibility of getting shaving soap, led to a necessary change.

英国人再留胡子(最后一次兴盛留大胡子还要追溯到都铎王朝)是由于克里米亚战争(1854-1856)。那时英国军队已禁止军人们留胡子,但克里米亚冬天气温冰冷,军人们又无法得到刮胡皂,导致了又留胡子这一必要的改变。

By the time the last troops returned home, beards were the mark of a hero. Men who had never seen any military action began to grow beards. Within a few years, it was almost impossible to see a beard-free male face in Victorian Britain - except in Buckingham Palace, as Prince Albert refused to conform to the fashion.

从克里米亚战争中的军队归国时开始,胡子就成了英雄的象征。那些没有亲眼见过军事行动的人们也开始留胡子。仅仅几年就很难在维多利亚时期的英国看到不留胡子的男性----除了在白金汉宫,因为阿尔伯特亲王(Prince Albert)拒绝跟风。

 
In America, the return of the beard began at around the same date. This was partly fuelled by fashion plates from British magazines, which were read avidly in America for the latest word in European fashion. Many American men, however, also decided to stop shaving for a practical reason. Although the so-called safety razor had been around since the 1770s, they were difficult to use and often dangerous. Even men who had mastered the art of shaving, were at risk if their razor hadn't been scrupulously cleaned. One such victim was John Thoreau, brother of the writer Henry David Thoreau, who cut himself shaving and died of lockjaw in his brother's arms.
在美国,胡子的兴盛几乎和英国是在同一时期。一定程度上是受了英国杂志中刊登的时尚插图的影响,美国人的蓄须热情也随之点燃,在那时,英国杂志在美国十分盛行。不过,很多美国男性不刮胡子的原因更为实际。尽管所谓的安全剃刀从18世纪70年代就开始使用,它们使用起来比较困难,也存在一定危险性。如果剃刀没有彻彻底底地清洗干净,即使是那些剃须技术娴熟的大师们在剃须时也会有风险。受害者之一就是作家亨利·大卫·梭罗(Henry David Thoreau)的弟弟约翰·梭罗(John Thoreau),他因为剃须时伤到自己从而患上了破伤风,结果在哥哥的怀里逝世。
In 1861 a new word came into usage in Britain, when Our American Cousin, by Tom Taylor, had its London premiere (the play Abraham Lincoln was watching when he was assassinated in Washington DC four years later). One of the characters, Lord Dundreary, was a comic fop with prodigious side whiskers. These quickly became known as "dundrearies", a name used both in Britain and America. In England, however, they were also referred to as "Piccadilly weepers", because these whiskers were worn by the kind of dandy who could be seen in London's Piccadilly.

1861年,汤姆·泰勒的作品《我的美国表兄》首次在伦敦问世(四年后在华盛顿亚布拉罕·林肯Abraham Lincoln遇刺时正在观看的戏剧),那时的英国也出现了一个新名词。剧中的一个人物圣主杜恩德雷(Lord Dundreary)是一个很幽默并穿着讲究的人,他脸颊两侧留有异常惊人的胡子。于是便很快出现了一个在英国和美国都通用的词“颊旁长髯”(dundrearies)。不过,在英国,留着这样的胡子的人也被称作是Piccadilly weepers,因为留着种胡子的人通常是伦敦皮卡迪利好穿着打扮的花花公子们。
During the American Civil War of 1861-5, the word "sideburns" was coined. It was a tribute to Maj Gen Ambrose Burnside, whose bushy moustache had been allowed to connect with his whiskers and formed an impressively thick and unbroken line of hair right across his face.

在美国内战时期(1861~1865),“连鬓胡子”(sideburns)这一词出现了。这个词是为了像上将安布罗斯·伯恩赛德(Ambrose Burnside)致敬,他的浓密的小胡子和腮须相连,看上去和脸上的胡子和头发练成厚厚的一条线。 (文章选自www.bbc.com)  待续~~

 

【作业】

1.【看一看】小伙伴们你们看到文章上方出现的大图了吗?你知道图片中的三位胡子先生是谁吗?

2.【找一找】找出文中表示胡子的单词并说出这些单词的区别(楼主我给了很明显的提示哦~)

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最后编辑于:2015-02-04 21:26

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