2015.02.05【英译中】节选自《guns,germs,and steel》 Chapter 9

zooeyzhang (彩) 译往情深
11 0 0
发表于:2015-02-05 08:07 [只看楼主] [划词开启]
Let's now return to the problem I posed at the outset of this chapter.Initially,one of the most puzzling features of animal domestcation is the seeming arbitrariness with which some species have been domesticated while their close relatives have not.It turns out that all but a few candidates for domestication have been eliminated by the Anna Karenina principle(Happy families are all alike,every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way).

让我们回到这章一开始我所提出的问题上。首先,动物驯化最令人困惑的一点是其随机性,即一些物种被驯化了,而他们的近亲却没有。事实是,除一小部分外,其他所有可驯化物种都被安娜卡列尼娜规则淘汰了(幸福的家庭都相似,不幸的家庭各有自己的不幸:被驯化的物种具有相同的特征,未被驯化的物种各因不同的原因)。

Humans and most animal species make an unhappy marriage,for one or more of many possible reasons:the animal's diet,growth rate,mating habits,disposition,tendency to panic,and several distinct features of social organization.Only a small percentage of wild mammal species ended up in happy marriages with humans,by virtue of compatibility on all those separate counts.

人类与大部分动物物种结成不幸福的婚姻(未驯化),原因是各种各样的,例如:动物的饮食(大部分吸收营养比例很小)、生长速度、交配习惯、脾性、恐慌倾向和群落组织的各种不同特征。野生动物种群中只有很小比例的物种,因在以上这些各独立方面都相容,而与人类拥有幸福的婚姻关系(成功驯化)。

Eurasian peoples happended to inherit many more species of domesticable large wild mammalian herbivores than did peoples of the other continents.That outcome,with all of its momentous advantages for Eurasian societies,stemmed from three basic facts of mammalian geography,history,and biology.First,Eurasia,befitting its large area and ecological diversity,started out with the most candidates.Second,Australia and the Americas,but not Eurasia or Africa,lost most of their candidates in a massive wave of late-Pleistocene extinctions--possibly because the mammals of the former continents had the misfortune to be first exposed to humans suddenly and late in our evolutionary history,when our hunting skills were already highly developed.Finally,a higher percentage of the surviving candidates proved suitable for domestication on Eurasia than on the other continents.An examination of the candidates that were never domesticated,such as Africa's big herd-forming mammals,reveals particular reasons that disqualified each of them.thus,Tolstoy would have approved of the insight offered in another context by an earlier author,Saint Mtthew:"Many are called,but few are chosen."

欧亚大陆上的人们恰巧比其他大陆上的人们继承更多适于驯化的大型野生植食性哺乳动物。这一结果对于欧亚大陆来说是一重大优势,其源于哺乳动物地理分布、历史和生物学的三个基本事实。第一,欧亚大陆得益于广阔的地域和气候的多样性,具有最多的候选物种;第二,澳洲和美洲,而不是欧亚大陆或者非洲,在晚更新世灭绝大潮中失去了大部分的候选者,可能是因为在前两个大洲上,哺乳动物不幸最早的突然遭遇到人类,以及此后人类在进化历程中的捕猎技巧愈加成熟。最后,欧亚大陆上比其他大陆上,具有更高比例的、存活下来的、适于驯化的候选者。对未被驯化候选者们(非洲的大型畜群哺乳动物)的研究,揭露了那些将他们淘汰的特殊理由。因此,托尔斯泰会赞同早期作家圣马修在另一本作品中的见解:“众多被招纳,鲜有被选择。”
分类: 英语

  • 0

    点赞

  • 收藏

  • 扫一扫分享朋友圈

    二维码

  • 分享

课程推荐

需要先加入社团哦

编辑标签

最多可添加10个标签,不同标签用英文逗号分开

保存

编辑官方标签

最多可添加10个官方标签,不同标签用英文逗号分开

保存
知道了

复制到我的社团