【TKIICPP】GRE阅读每天练 ——第六期

发表于:2010-12-10 14:39 [只看楼主] [划词开启]
节目内容:
包含三部分内容:
1 杨鹏难句
2 GRE阅读真题
3 搜集到的值得一读的文章
这三部分内容基本按照以上顺序出现 。
由于前5期内容比较散,建议大家从第6期开始看。


节目任务:
对于杨鹏难句,每期五个句子,朋友们,真的不算多。
1 先看下是不是看的懂这个句子的意思,自己翻译一下。
2 如果看不懂,可以试着找出句子的各个成分,特别是主谓宾。
3 如果还觉得疑惑,就把句子下面空白部分选中看一下句子翻译和解释。
4 最后记录下自己不明白句子部分和不认识的单词。


至于答题,可以写中文翻译,可以写句子主谓宾,可以只记录下自己难以理解的句子号码和不认识的单词。无论记录什么,都是自己复习的印记。

有些句子真的很难理解,要看多遍解释,这个时候再回头看句子,理解能力就提升了一层奥。
大家加油:)

节目奖励:参与奖10HY, 参与复习奖50HY.

另外补充一下:反白可见,是指把每句下面的空白部分选中或者Ctrl+A,因为这些内容的字体颜色是白色,必须选中以后才会显现。反白的内容主要是对于难句的解释,或者是题目的答案。在看完句子或者做完题目以后可以Ctrl+A 看看自己理解的和做的对不对,便捷大家学习。

另: 杨鹏难句的前10句在第一期
http://bulo.hujiang.com/menu/3984/item/342089/


11. Such variations in size, shape, chemistry, conduction speed, excitation threshold, and the like as had been demonstrated in nerve cells remained negligible in significance for any possible correlation with the manifold dimensions of mental experience.(5)

类似于这些已经被在神经细胞中证明的在大小、形状、化学过程、产生的速度、兴奋阈值及其类似的方面上所发生变化,当他们被用来与大脑的体验以可能的方式联系起来的时候,他们在重要性上仍然是微不足道的。

难句类型:复杂修饰

解释:即使是初练难免的人其实也很熟悉such thing as something这样的语言方式,可是当中间的小东西thing居然变成了一个长达十二个单词的大东西的时候,实在令人搞不清后面的as及其后的something 到底为哪方神圣。再加上以such as 为中心的长主语距离系动词remain太远,更增加了本句的难度。请读者反复阅读,直到读出这样的感觉:顺序阅读原文时,原文似乎就是几大块,就好像是such things as a remain negligible in a certain sense.


意群训练:Such variations insize, shape, chemistry, conduction speed, excitation threshold,and the like as had been demonstrated in nerve cells remainednegligible in significance for any possible correlation with themanifold dimensions of mental experience.


12. It was possible to demonstrate by other methods refined structural differences among neuron types; however, proof was lacking that the quality of the impulse or its condition was influenced by these differences, which seemed instead to influence the developmental patterning of the neural circuits.(5)

有可能通过其他方法来证明神经元种类间的细微的结构差异;可是,这样的证据是缺乏的,即神经冲动的性质或者状态是受这些差异所影响的,而这些差异看起来却能影响神经网络的发育模式。

难句类型:复杂修饰、倒装

解释:与很多人的印象相反,lack从来就不能作形容词,它只有动词或名词的词性。其形容词的形式是lacking,意思是缺乏的、不足的。

本句的在however 之前和之后的两个分句,是两个倒装结构,前一个是小倒装,正常语序是:to demonstrate refined structural differences among neuron types by other methods: however后面是个大倒装,lacking之后的that引导的同位语人名是修饰主语proof的,但是因为它太长,所以为了避免头重脚轻,被放到lacking之后,正常的语序应该是proof that the quality of ..was lacking。


意群训练:It was possible todemonstrate by other methods refined structural differences amongneuron types; however, proof was lacking that the qualityof the impulse or its condition was influenced by thesedifferences, which seemed instead to influence the developmentalpatterning of the neural circuits.

13. Although qualitative variance among nerve energies was never rigidly disproved,the doctrine was generally abandoned in favor of the opposing view,namely,that nerve impulses are essentially homogeneous in quality and are transmitted as "common currency" throughout the nervous system.(4)

尽管在神经能量上存在着质的不同,这一点从来都没有在严格的意义上被反对过,但是以上教条通常被抛弃掉,而转向相反的观点,即:神经冲动从根本上本质相同,而且被当作“一种普通流”在整个神经系统中传播。

难句类型:复杂修饰、双重否定

解释:前半个分句中有一个双重否定,was never rigidly disproved,这种表示法用中文说出来还是比较好懂的,原因是我们熟悉中文的这种表示法,但在英文中出现,因为在以前的学习中见得少,所以感觉上很别扭。因此,同学们的任务,就是通过反复阅读此类句子来熟悉这样的英语。其实在英文表达中,很多双重否定与中文表达是一样的,表示肯定;如not unlimited就等于limited。但是值得读者注意的是在GRE和GMAT这两种对考生的逻辑有苛刻要求的考试中,如果这种双重否定中所涉及的概念不是dichotomous (即二分法的词汇,比如上面例子中的limited和unlimited),则双重否定不一定表示肯定;比如本例中的not disprove,不能理解为agree,不反对者中,的确有人会同意,但通常心存疑虑,随大流者居多。不但如此,大双重否定中加上限定词以后,在否定的范围上也有所变化,如本句的be never rigidly disproved,没有完全被反对,不能理解为从来都被严格支持的,而应该理解成从来都可能有人支持的。综上所述,对双重否定的句子,简单的把其置换为肯定,不是最精确的理解。而最好的办法,就是通过多读、多练来熟悉其语言表达及其逻辑方式,按照其字面的表达理解成没有完全否定,然后大脑中反应出其目前的生存状态是一个仍未消失的状态;这种理解才是在考试现场既快速又精确的理解。

运用前面所说的用合理化原则中的取非读法,可以很容易的读出作者在后半个分句中想说前面的那种观点被反对了。但是,初学者会对这个分句中的something be abandoned in favor of something else这种语言表达感到突然,如果理解成因为喜后者而抛弃了前者,虽然也能说得通,但是其实原文从来没有这种因果关系,in favor of强调的是这两种动作的同时性;抛弃了前者,而转向后者,namely之后的内容是前面的opposing view的同位语。


意群训练:Although qualitativevarianceamong nerve energies was never rigidly disproved, the doctrinewas generally abandoned in favor of the opposing view, namely,that nerve impulses are essentially homogeneous in quality andare transmitted as "common currency" throughout thenervous system.



14. Other experiments revealed slight variations in the size,number,arrangement,and interconnection of the nerve cells,but as far as psycho neural correlations were concerned,the obvious similarities of these sensory fields to each other seemed much more remarkable than any of the minute differences.(4 -)

尽管其他实验显示在神经细胞的大小、数量、排列和相互连接上有一些小的差异,但是就心理-神经的关系而言,这些感官区域彼此之间的明显的相似性看起来比起微小的差异更为令人注目。

难句类型:复杂修饰、插入语

解释:在前后两个分句之间有一个插入语as far as psychoneural correlations were concerned。在后面的分句中,主语the obvious similarities之后的、修饰主语的成分较长、以至于有很多读者看到相隔很远的more remarkable than时一下子反应不过来是什么比后者更明显。其简化形式应为:similarities seemed more remarkable than differences。


意群训练:Other experimentsrevealedslight variations in the size, number, arrangement, andinterconnection of the nerve cells, but as far as psychoneuralcorrelations were concerned, the obvious similarities of thesesensory fields to each other seemed much more remarkablethan any of the minute differences.



15. Although some experiments show that,as an object becomes familiar,its internal representation becomes more holistic and the recognition process correspondingly more parallel,the weight of evidence seems to support the serial hypothesis,at least for objects that are not notably simple and familiar.(4+)

虽然某些实验表明,随着一个物体变得熟悉起来,其内心再现图像亦更具整体感,辨认过程相应地更趋于平行,但证据的砝码似乎在支持序列假设(serial hypothesis),至少是对于那些不甚简单、不甚熟悉的物体来说。

难句类型:复杂修饰、插入语、省略­

解释:在Although引导的分句中,谓语shows后面跟着一个长长的宾语从句,从句中先出现一个插入语as an object becomes familiar,之后的内容是由and 连接的两套并列的主谓宾。其实and前后就是两个句子,只不过作者省略了后面的句子中与前面相同的引导词that和谓语become。

句子中有一个生词holistic,其实即使不认识,也能用合理化原则猜出它是后面serial的反义词、parallel的同义词,大约是统一、完整或同时的意思;其实只要能理解到其是与serial相反的意思即可。


意群训练:Although someexperimentsshow thatas an object becomesfamiliarits internalrepresentation becomes more holistic and the recognitionprocess correspondingly more parallelthe weightof evidence
seems to support theserial hypothesisat leastfor objectsthat are not notably simple and familiar.


本期奖励已发,感谢 crystalent,heimao0097,tomkilller,石田命 支持!
最后编辑于:2010-12-12 10:00

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