中国传统文化 | 四大名绣之“蜀绣” Shu Embroidery

发表于:2015-03-18 10:13 [只看楼主] [划词开启]

蜀绣也称“川绣”,它是以四川成都为中心的刺绣产品的总称。

蜀绣的生产具有悠久的历史。早在汉代(公元前206~公元220年),蜀绣之名就已誉满天下,汉朝政府还在成都专门设置了“锦官”进行管理。汉以后至五代十国时期(公元907~960年),四川相对安定的局面为蜀绣的发展创造了有利的条件,社会需求的不断增大,刺激了蜀绣业的飞速发展。到了宋代(公元960~1279年),蜀绣的发展达到鼎盛时期,绣品在工艺、产销量和精美程度上都独步天下。清朝(公元1644~1911年)中叶以后,蜀绣逐渐形成行业,当时各县官府均设“劝工局”以鼓励蜀绣生产。新中国成立后,在四川设立了成都蜀绣厂,使蜀绣工艺的发展进入了一个新阶段,技术上不断创新,品种日益增多。


Also called Chuan embroidery, Shu embroidery is the general name for embroidery products in areas around Chengdu, Sichuan Province. Shu embroidery enjoys a long history. As early as the Han Dynasty, Shu embroidery was already famous. The central government even designated an office in this area for its administration. During the Five Dynasties and Ten States periods (907-960), a peaceful society and large demand provided advanced conditions for the rapid development of the Shu Embroidery industry. Shu embroidery experienced its peak development in the Song Dynasty (960-1279), ranking first in both production and excellence. In the mid-Qing Dynasty, the Shu embroidery industry was formed. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, Shu embroidery factories were set up and the craft entered a new phase of development, using innovative techniques and a larger variety of forms.



蜀绣起源于川西民间,在长期的发展过程中,由于受地理环境、风俗习惯、文化艺术等方面的影响,逐渐形成了严谨细腻、光亮平整、构图疏朗、浑厚圆润、色彩明快的独特风格。蜀绣作品的选材丰富,有花草树木、飞禽走兽、山水鱼虫、人物肖像等。针法包括12大类共122种,常用的针法有晕针、铺针、滚针、截针、掺针、沙针、盖针等,讲究“针脚整齐,线片光亮,紧密柔和,车拧到家”。绣品的种类繁多,包括被面、枕套、衣、鞋和画屏等,既有巨幅条屏,又有袖珍小件,是观赏性与实用性兼备的精美艺术品。


Originating among the folk people in the west of Sichuan Province, Shu embroidery formed its own unique characteristics: smooth, bright, neat and influenced by the geographical environment, customs and cultures. The works incorporated flowers, leaves, animals, mountains, rivers and human figures as their themes. Altogether, there are 122 approaches in 12 categories for weaving. The craftsmanship of Shu embroidery involves a combination of fine arts, aesthetics and practical uses, such as the facings of quits, pillowcases, coats, shoots and screen covers.


【Vocabulary】

蜀绣

shǔ xiù

Shu Embroidery


四川

sì chuān

Sichuan Province


社会

shè huì

society


品种

pǐn zhǒng

variety


地理

dì lǐ

geography


习俗

xí sú

分类: 趣味故事
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